The first description of patients with a blood picture compatible with the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) was published at the beginning of the 20th century,1 and the first MDS case series was published in the early 1970s.2 This places the recognition of MDS up to 100 years behind what has occurred for other hematologic malignancies. Elucidation of the epidemiology, natural history, and practice patterns has similarly lagged behind that of other cancers.
However, the availability within the past decade of 3 drugs, azacitidine, lenalidomide, and decitabine,3–5 which were approved by the FDA specifically for the treatment of MDS, has partly spurred the maturation rate of epidemiologic knowledge. This has also caused more attention to be focused on the evolution of lower- and higher-risk MDS into more aggressive forms of either MDS or acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and has necessitated a clearer description of how these drugs are being used across the country.
Silverman LR, Demakos EP, Peterson BL et al.. Randomized controlled trial of azacitidine in patients with the myelodysplastic syndrome: a study of the cancer and leukemia group B. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2429–2440.
Kantarjian H, Issa JP, Rosenfeld CS et al.. Decitabine improves patient outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes: results of a phase III randomized study. Cancer 2006;106:1794–1803.
List A, Dewald G, Bennett J et al.. Lenalidomide in the myelodysplastic syndrome with chromosome 5q deletion. N Engl J Med 2006;355:1456–1465.
Ma X, Does M, Raza A, Mayne ST. Myelodysplastic syndromes: incidence and survival in the United States. Cancer 2007;109:1536–1542.
Rollison DE, Howlader N, Smith MT et al.. Epidemiology of myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myeloproliferative disorders in the United States, 2001–2004, using data from the NAACCR and SEER programs. Blood 2008;112:45–52.
Goldberg SL, Chen E, Corral M et al.. Incidence and clinical complications of myelodysplastic syndromes among United States Medicare beneficiaries. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:2847–2852.
Aul C, Gattermann N, Schneider W. Age-related incidence and other epidemiological aspects of myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol 1992;82:358–367.
Maynadie M, Verret C, Moskovtchenko P et al.. Epidemiological characteristics of myelodysplastic syndrome in a well-defined French population. Br J Cancer 1996;74:288–290.
McNally RJ, Rowland D, Roman E, Cartwright RA. Age and sex distributions of hematological malignancies in the U.K. Hematol Oncol 1997;15:173–189.
Radlund A, Thiede T, Hansen S et al.. Incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes in a Swedish population. Eur J Haematol 1995;54:153–156.
Neukirchen J, Schoonen WM, Aul C et al.. Incidence and prevalence of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in Dusseldorf 1996–2005 [abstract]. Blood 2009;114:Abstract 1774.
Guralnik JM, Eisenstaedt RS, Ferrucci L et al.. Prevalence of anemia in persons 65 years and older in the United States: evidence for a high rate of unexplained anemia. Blood 2004;104:2263–2268.
Fenaux P, Mufti GJ, Hellstrom-Lindberg E et al.. Efficacy of azacitidine compared with that of conventional care regimens in the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: a randomised, open-label, phase III study. Lancet Oncol 2009;10:223–232.
Sekeres MA, Schoonen WM, Kantarjian H et al.. Characteristics of US patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: results of six cross-sectional physician surveys. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008;100:1542–1551.
Pedersen-Bjergaard J, Specht L, Larsen SO et al.. Risk of therapy-related leukaemia and preleukaemia after Hodgkin's disease. Relation to age, cumulative dose of alkylating agents, and time from chemotherapy. Lancet 1987;2:83–88.
Smith RE, Bryant J, DeCillis A, Anderson S. Acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome after doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide adjuvant therapy for operable breast cancer: the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Experience. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:1195–1204.
- Search Google Scholar
- Export Citation
. Smith RE Bryant J DeCillis A Anderson S Acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome after doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide adjuvant therapy for operable breast cancer: the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Experience. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21: 1195– 1204.
Pedersen-Bjergaard J, Rowley JD. The balanced and the unbalanced chromosome aberrations of acute myeloid leukemia may develop in different ways and may contribute differently to malignant transformation. Blood 1994;83:2780–2786.
Rowley JD, Olney HJ. International workshop on the relationship of prior therapy to balanced chromosome aberrations in therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes and acute leukemia: overview report. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2002;33:331–345.
Pedersen-Bjergaard J, Pedersen M, Roulston D, Philip P. Different genetic pathways in leukemogenesis for patients presenting with therapy-related myelodysplasia and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 1995;86:3542–3552.
Friedberg JW, Neuberg D, Stone RM et al.. Outcome in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome after autologous bone marrow transplantation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:3128–3135.
Kalaycio M, Rybicki L, Pohlman B et al.. Risk factors before autologous stem-cell transplantation for lymphoma predict for secondary myelodysplasia and acute myelogenous leukemia. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:3604–3610.
Leleu X, Soumerai J, Roccaro A et al.. Increased incidence of transformation and myelodysplasia/acute leukemia in patients with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia treated with nucleoside analogs. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:250–255.
Josting A, Wiedenmann S, Franklin J et al.. Secondary myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease: a report from the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:3440–3446.
Smith SM, Le Beau MM, Huo D et al.. Clinical-cytogenetic associations in 306 patients with therapy-related myelodysplasia and myeloid leukemia: the University of Chicago series. Blood 2003;102:43–52.
Franklin J, Pluetschow A, Paus M et al.. Second malignancy risk associated with treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma: meta-analysis of the randomised trials. Ann Oncol 2006;17:1749–1760.
Le Deley MC, Suzan F, Cutuli B et al.. Anthracyclines, mitoxantrone, radiotherapy, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: risk factors for leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome after breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:292–300.
Bhatia S, Krailo MD, Chen Z et al.. Therapy-related myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia after Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor of bone: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood 2007;109:46–51.
Barnard DR, Lange B, Alonzo TA et al.. Acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome in children treated for cancer: comparison with primary presentation. Blood 2002;100:427–434.
McLaughlin P, Estey E, Glassman A et al.. Myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia following therapy for indolent lymphoma with fludarabine, mitoxantrone, and dexamethasone (FND) plus rituximab and interferon alpha. Blood 2005;105:4573–4575.
Blayney DW, Longo DL, Young RC et al.. Decreasing risk of leukemia with prolonged follow-up after chemotherapy and radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. N Engl J Med 1987;316:710–714.
Wheeler C, Khurshid A, Ibrahim J et al.. Incidence of post transplant myelodysplasia/acute leukemia in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients compared with Hodgkin's disease patients undergoing autologous transplantation following cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide (CBV). Leuk Lymphoma 2001;40:499–509.
- Search Google Scholar
- Export Citation
. Wheeler C Khurshid A Ibrahim J Incidence of post transplant myelodysplasia/acute leukemia in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients compared with Hodgkin's disease patients undergoing autologous transplantation following cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide (CBV). Leuk Lymphoma 2001; 40: 499– 509.
Franklin JG, Paus MD, Pluetschow A, Specht L. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and combined modality for Hodgkin's disease, with emphasis on second cancer risk. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005:CD003187.
Finazzi G, Caruso V, Marchioli R et al.. Acute leukemia in polycythemia vera: an analysis of 1638 patients enrolled in a prospective observational study. Blood 2005;105:2664–2670.
Du Y, Fryzek J, Sekeres MA, Taioli E. Smoking and alcohol intake as risk factors for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Leuk Res 2009;9:9.
Aul C, Bowen DT, Yoshida Y. Pathogenesis, etiology and epidemiology of myelodysplastic syndromes. Haematologica 1998;83:71–86.
Strom SS, Gu Y, Gruschkus SK et al.. Risk factors of myelodysplastic syndromes: a case-control study. Leukemia 2005;19:1912–1918.
Nisse C, Haguenoer JM, Grandbastien B et al.. Occupational and environmental risk factors of the myelodysplastic syndromes in the North of France. Br J Haematol 2001;112:927–935.
Goldberg H, Lusk E, Moore J et al.. Survey of exposure to genotoxic agents in primary myelodysplastic syndrome: correlation with chromosome patterns and data on patients without hematological disease. Cancer Res 1990;50:6876–6881.
West RR, Stafford DA, Farrow A, Jacobs A. Occupational and environmental exposures and myelodysplasia: a case-control study. Leuk Res 1995;19:127–139.
Greenberg P, Cox C, LeBeau MM et al.. International scoring system for evaluating prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood 1997;89:2079–2088.
Malcovati L, Germing U, Kuendgen A et al.. Time-dependent prognostic scoring system for predicting survival and leukemic evolution in myelodysplastic syndromes. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:3503–3510.
Kantarjian H, O'Brien S, Ravandi F et al.. Proposal for a new risk model in myelodysplastic syndrome that accounts for events not considered in the original International Prognostic Scoring System. Cancer 2008;113:1351–1361.
Sekeres MA, Maciejewski JP, List AF et al.. Perceptions of disease state, treatment expectations, and prognosis among patients with myelodysplastic syndromes [abstract]. Blood 2009;114:Abstract 1771.
Sekeres MA. Treatment of MDS: something old, something new, something borrowed. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2009:656–663.