National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference statement: management of menopause-related symptoms. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:1003–1013.
Freedman RR, Roehrs TA. Effects of REM sleep and ambient temperature on hot flash-induced sleep disturbance. Menopause 2006;13:576–583.
Casper RF, Yen SS. Neuroendocrinology of menopausal flushes: an hypothesis of flush mechanism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1985;22:293–312.
Visvanathan K, Chlebowski RT, Hurley P et al.. American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update on the use of pharmacologic interventions including tamoxifen, raloxifene, and aromatase inhibition for breast cancer risk reduction. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:3235–3258.
- Search Google Scholar
- Export Citation
. Visvanathan K Chlebowski RT Hurley P American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update on the use of pharmacologic interventions including tamoxifen, raloxifene, and aromatase inhibition for breast cancer risk reduction. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 3235– 3258.
Vogel VG, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL et al.. Effects of tamoxifen vs raloxifene on the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and other disease outcomes: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial. JAMA 2006;295:2727–2741.
Cuzick J. IBIS II: a breast cancer prevention trial in postmenopausal women using the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2008;8:1377–1385.
Richardson H, Johnston D, Pater J et al.. The National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group MAP.3 trial: an international breast cancer prevention trial. Curr Oncol 2007;14:89–96.
Day R. Quality of life and tamoxifen in a breast cancer prevention trial: a summary of findings from the NSABP P-1 study. National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2001;949:143–150.
Land SR, Wickerham DL, Costantino JP et al.. Patient-reported symptoms and quality of life during treatment with tamoxifen or raloxifene for breast cancer prevention: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial. JAMA 2006;295:2742–2751.
Cella D, Fallowfield LJ. Recognition and management of treatment-related side effects for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2008;107:167–180.
MacLennan A, Lester S, Moore V. Oral oestrogen replacement therapy versus placebo for hot flushes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;CD002978. [Update in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;CD002978.]
Nelson HD. Commonly used types of postmenopausal estrogen for treatment of hot flashes: scientific review. JAMA 2004;291:1610–1620.
Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL et al.. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:321–333.
Holmberg L, Iversen OE, Rudenstam CM et al.. Increased risk of recurrence after hormone replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008;100:475–482.
von S, choultz E, Rutqvist LE. Menopausal hormone therapy after breast cancer: the Stockholm randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;97:533–535.
Bachmann GA, Schaefers M, Uddin A et al.. Lowest effective transdermal 17beta-estradiol dose for relief of hot flushes in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2007;110:771–779.
Goodwin JW, Green SJ, Moinpour CM et al.. Phase III randomized placebo-controlled trial of two doses of megestrol acetate as treatment for menopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer: Southwest Oncology Group study 9626. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:1650–1656.
Bertelli G, Venturini M, Del Mastro L et al.. Intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone versus oral megestrol for the control of postmenopausal hot flashes in breast cancer patients: a randomized study. Ann Oncol 2002;13:883–888.
Role of progestogen in hormone therapy for postmenopausal women: position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause 2003;10:113–132.
Loprinzi CL, Kugler JW, Sloan JA et al.. Venlafaxine in management of hot flashes in survivors of breast cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2000;356:2059–2063.
Evans ML, Pritts E, Vittinghoff E et al.. Management of postmenopausal hot flushes with venlafaxine hydrochloride: a randomized, controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:161–166.
Loprinzi CL, Levitt R, Barton D et al.. Phase III comparison of depomedroxyprogesterone acetate to venlafaxine for managing hot flashes: North Central Cancer Treatment Group trial N99C7. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:1409–1414.
Speroff L, Gass M, Constantine G et al.. Efficacy and tolerability of desvenlafaxine succinate treatment for menopausal vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2008;111:77–87.
Archer DF, Dupont CM, Constantine GD et al.. Desvenlafaxine for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of efficacy and safety. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;200:238.
Stearns V, Beebe KL, Iyengar M et al.. Paroxetine controlled release in the treatment of menopausal hot flashes: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;289:2827–2834.
Stearns V, Slack R, Greep N et al.. Paroxetine is an effective treatment for hot flashes: results from a prospective randomized clinical trial. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:6919–6930.
Loprinzi CL, Sloan JA, Perez EA et al.. Phase III evaluation of fluoxetine for treatment of hot flashes. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:1578–1583.
Suvanto-Luukkonen E, Koivunen R, Sundstrom H et al.. Citalopram and fluoxetine in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms: a prospective, randomized, 9-month, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Menopause 2005;12:18–26.
Loprinzi CL, Sloan J, Stearns V et al.. Newer antidepressants and gabapentin for hot flashes: an individual patient pooled analysis. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:2831–2837.
Barton DL, LaVasseur B, Sloan JA et al.. A phase III trial evaluating three doses of citalopram for hot flashes: NCCTG trial N05C9 [abstract]. J Clin Oncol 2008;26(Suppl 1):Abstract 9538.
Loprinzi CL, Flynn PJ, Carpenter LA et al.. Pilot evaluation of citalopram for the treatment of hot flashes in women with inadequate benefit from venlafaxine. J Palliat Med 2005;8:924–930.
Guttuso T Jr, Kurlan R, McDermott MP et al.. Gabapentin's effects on hot flashes in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial [see comment]. Obstet Gynecol 2003;101:337–345.
Pandya KJ, Morrow GR, Roscoe JA et al.. Gabapentin for hot flashes in 420 women with breast cancer: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366:818–824.
Reddy SY, Warner H, Guttuso T Jr et al.. Gabapentin, estrogen, and placebo for treating hot flushes: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2006;108:41–48.
Loprinzi CL, Kugler JW, Barton DL et al.. Phase III trial of gabapentin alone or in conjunction with an antidepressant in the management of hot flashes in women who have inadequate control with an antidepressant alone: NCCTG N03C5. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:308–312.
Loprinzi CL, Qin R, Balcueva EP et al.. Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of pregabalin for alleviating hot flashes, N07C1. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:641–647.
Bergmans MG, Merkus JM, Corbey RS et al.. Effect of Bellergal Retard on climacteric complaints: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Maturitas 1987;9:227–234.
Nelson HD, Vesco KK, Haney E et al.. Nonhormonal therapies for menopausal hot flashes: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2006;295:2057–2071.
Hammond MG, Hatley L, Talbert LM. A double blind study to evaluate the effect of methyldopa on menopausal vasomotor flushes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;58:1158–1160.
Melis GB, Gambacciani M, Cagnacci A et al.. Effects of the dopamine antagonist veralipride on hot flushes and luteinizing hormone secretion in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:688–692.
Tham DM, Gardner CD, Haskell WL. Clinical review 97: potential health benefits of dietary phytoestrogens: a review of the clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic evidence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2223–2235.
Lewis JE, Nickell LA, Thompson LU et al.. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of dietary soy and flaxseed muffins on quality of life and hot flashes during menopause. Menopause 2006;13:631–642.
Kronenberg F, Fugh-Berman A. Complementary and alternative medicine for menopausal symptoms: a review of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:805–813.
Pockaj BA, Gallagher JG, Loprinzi CL et al.. Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of black cohosh in the management of hot flashes: NCCTG trial N01CC1. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:2836–2841.
Geller SE, Shulman LP, van Breemen RB et al.. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Menopause 2009;16:1156–1166.
Barton DL, Loprinzi CL, Quella SK et al.. Prospective evaluation of vitamin E for hot flashes in breast cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:495–500.
Bardia A, Tleyjeh IM, Cerhan JR et al.. Efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in reducing primary cancer incidence and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc 2008;83:23–34.
Lindh-Astrand L, Nedstrand E, Wyon Y et al.. Vasomotor symptoms and quality of life in previously sedentary postmenopausal women randomised to physical activity or estrogen therapy. Maturitas 2004;48:97–105.
Ueda M. A 12-week structured education and exercise program improved climacteric symptoms in middle-aged women. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 2004;23:143–148.
Aiello EJ, Yasui Y, Tworoger SS et al.. Effect of a yearlong, moderate-intensity exercise intervention on the occurrence and severity of menopause symptoms in postmenopausal women. Menopause 2004;11:382–388.
Tremblay A, Sheeran L, Aranda SK. Psychoeducational interventions to alleviate hot flashes: a systematic review. Menopause 2008;15:193–202.
Elkins G, Marcus J, Stearns V et al.. Randomized trial of a hypnosis intervention for treatment of hot flashes among breast cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:5022–5026.
Lipov EG, Lipov S, Joshi JR et al.. Stellate ganglion block may relieve hot flashes by interrupting the sympathetic nervous system. Med Hypotheses 2007;69:758–763.
Stearns V, Johnson MD, Rae JM et al.. Active tamoxifen metabolite plasma concentrations after coadministration of tamoxifen and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:1758–1764.
Jin Y, Desta Z, Stearns V et al.. CYP2D6 genotype, antidepressant use, and tamoxifen metabolism during adjuvant breast cancer treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;97:30–39.
Wu X, Hawse JR, Subramaniam M et al.. The tamoxifen metabolite, endoxifen, is a potent antiestrogen that targets estrogen receptor alpha for degradation in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 2009;69:1722–1727.
Sistonen J, Sajantila A, Lao O et al.. CYP2D6 worldwide genetic variation shows high frequency of altered activity variants and no continental structure. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2007;17:93–101.
Borges S, Desta Z, Li L et al.. Quantitative effect of CYP2D6 genotype and inhibitors on tamoxifen metabolism: implication for optimization of breast cancer treatment. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006;80:61–74.
Goetz MP, Knox SK, Suman VJ et al.. The impact of cytochrome P450 2D6 metabolism in women receiving adjuvant tamoxifen. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2007;101:113–121.
Goetz MP, Ames MM, Gnant M. Pharmacogenetic (CYP2D6) and gene expression profiles (HOXB13/IL17BR and molecular grade index) for prediction of adjuvant endocrine therapy benefit in the ABCSG 8 trial. Cancer Res 2009;69:77S.
Schroth W, Antoniadou L, Fritz P et al.. Breast cancer treatment outcome with adjuvant tamoxifen relative to patient CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:5187–5193.
Lynn H, enry N, Rae JM, Li L et al.. Association between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen-induced hot flashes in a prospective cohort. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2009;117:571–575.
Mortimer JE, Flatt SW, Parker BA et al.. Tamoxifen, hot flashes and recurrence in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2008;108:421–426.
Nowell SA, Ahn J, Rae JM et al.. Association of genetic variation in tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes with overall survival and recurrence of disease in breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2005;91:249–258.
Wegman P, Elingarami S, Carstensen J et al.. Genetic variants of CYP3A5, CYP2D6, SULT1A1, UGT2B15 and tamoxifen response in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 2007;9:R7.
Okishiro M, Taguchi T, Jin Kim S et al.. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 10 and CYP2C19 2, 3 are not associated with prognosis, endometrial thickness, or bone mineral density in Japanese breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen. Cancer 2009;115:952–961.
Summary Minutes of the Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science, Clinical Pharmacology Subcommittee. October 16–18, 2006, Rockville MD. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/AC/06/minutes/2006-4248m1.pdf. Accessed August 3, 2010.
Desmarais JE, Looper KJ. Interactions between tamoxifen and antidepressants via cytochrome P450 2D6. J Clin Psychiatry 2009;70:1688–1697.
Sideras K, Ingle JN, Ames MM et al.. Coprescription of tamoxifen and medications that inhibit CYP2D6. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:2768–2776.
Bordeleau L, Jugovic O, Ennis M et al.. A randomized crossover trial of venlafaxine (V) versus gabapentin (G) for hot flashes (HF) in breast cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol, in press.