EPR19-74: Risk of Cabozantinib-Associated Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Toxicities in Patients With Metastatic Solid Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Background: Cabozantinib is an oral inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases and is used in treatment of multiple solid tumors, targeting several pathways such as vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway and proto-oncogenes MET, KIT, RET. These pathways are implicated in several tumor development and progression. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) to determine the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatic toxicities among patients with metastatic solid tumors treated with cabozantinib. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE databases, and meeting abstracts from inception to September 2018 were queried. Phase 3 RCTs that mention GI and elevation of liver enzymes as adverse effects were incorporated in the analysis. Mantel-Haenszel method was used to calculate the estimated pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI. Random effects model was applied. Results: We included 4 phase 3 RCTs with a total of 2,703 patients with various solid tumors. The study arm used cabozantinib while the control arm utilized everolimus or placebo or prednisone. The relative risks of all-grade side effects were as follows: diarrhea, 2.495 (95% CI: 2.149–2.897, P<.0001); nausea, 1.849 (95% CI: 1.649–2.072; P<.0001); vomiting, 2.335 (95% CI: 1.724–3.163; P<.0001); stomatitis, 4.541 (95% CI: 0.908–22.696; P=.065); dysgeusia, 4.428 (95% CI: 2.67–7.343; P<.0001); elevated AST, 2.002 (95% CI: 1.331–3.011; P=.001); and elevated ALT, 1.988 (95% CI: 0.936–4.222; P=.074). The RR of high-grade side effects were as follows: diarrhea, 5.913 (95% CI: 3.655–9.566; P<.0001); nausea, 3.098 (95% CI: 1.266–7.581; P=.013); vomiting, 1.298 (95% CI: 0.395–4.265; P=.668); stomatitis, 3.837 (95% CI: 0.749–19.665; P=.107); dysgeusia, 1.522 (95% CI: 0.159–14.574; P=.716); elevated AST, 1.733 (95% CI: 1.101–2.728; P=.018); and elevated ALT, 2.489 (95% CI: 1.164–5.326; P=.019). Conclusion: The risk of developing all grades of diarrhea, nausea, elevated AST, and any-grade vomiting, dysgeusia as well as high-grade elevated ALT, was high in cabozantinib group. Timely recognition and providing good supportive care will enhance patients’ quality of life.

Background: Cabozantinib is an oral inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases and is used in treatment of multiple solid tumors, targeting several pathways such as vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway and proto-oncogenes MET, KIT, RET. These pathways are implicated in several tumor development and progression. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) to determine the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatic toxicities among patients with metastatic solid tumors treated with cabozantinib. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE databases, and meeting abstracts from inception to September 2018 were queried. Phase 3 RCTs that mention GI and elevation of liver enzymes as adverse effects were incorporated in the analysis. Mantel-Haenszel method was used to calculate the estimated pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI. Random effects model was applied. Results: We included 4 phase 3 RCTs with a total of 2,703 patients with various solid tumors. The study arm used cabozantinib while the control arm utilized everolimus or placebo or prednisone. The relative risks of all-grade side effects were as follows: diarrhea, 2.495 (95% CI: 2.149–2.897, P<.0001); nausea, 1.849 (95% CI: 1.649–2.072; P<.0001); vomiting, 2.335 (95% CI: 1.724–3.163; P<.0001); stomatitis, 4.541 (95% CI: 0.908–22.696; P=.065); dysgeusia, 4.428 (95% CI: 2.67–7.343; P<.0001); elevated AST, 2.002 (95% CI: 1.331–3.011; P=.001); and elevated ALT, 1.988 (95% CI: 0.936–4.222; P=.074). The RR of high-grade side effects were as follows: diarrhea, 5.913 (95% CI: 3.655–9.566; P<.0001); nausea, 3.098 (95% CI: 1.266–7.581; P=.013); vomiting, 1.298 (95% CI: 0.395–4.265; P=.668); stomatitis, 3.837 (95% CI: 0.749–19.665; P=.107); dysgeusia, 1.522 (95% CI: 0.159–14.574; P=.716); elevated AST, 1.733 (95% CI: 1.101–2.728; P=.018); and elevated ALT, 2.489 (95% CI: 1.164–5.326; P=.019). Conclusion: The risk of developing all grades of diarrhea, nausea, elevated AST, and any-grade vomiting, dysgeusia as well as high-grade elevated ALT, was high in cabozantinib group. Timely recognition and providing good supportive care will enhance patients’ quality of life.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

Corresponding Author: Anita Sultan, MD
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 115 66 1
PDF Downloads 81 81 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0