Dr. Shah has disclosed that she receives grant/research support from Eisai, Loxo Oncology, and Merck; and that she serves on the advisory board for Eisai, Loxo Oncology, Ignyta, and Novartis. Dr. Backes has disclosed that she serves on the advisory board and is a consultant for Merck. The remaining authors have disclosed that they have no financial interests, arrangements, affiliations, or commercial interests with the manufacturers of any products discussed in this article or their competitors.
Chuk MK, Chang JT, Theoret MR et al.. FDA approval summary: accelerated approval of pembrolizumab for second-line treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clin Cancer Res 2017;23:5666–5670.
Muro K, Chung HC, Shankaran V et al.. Pembrolizumab for patients with PD-L1-positive advanced gastric cancer (KEYNOTE-012): a multicentre, open-label, phase 1b trial. Lancet Oncol 2016;17:717–726.
Plimack ER, Bellmunt J, Gupta S et al.. Safety and activity of pembrolizumab in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer (KEYNOTE-012): a non-randomised, open-label, phase 1b study. Lancet Oncol 2017;18:212–220.
Seiwert TY, Burtness B, Mehra R et al.. Safety and clinical activity of pembrolizumab for treatment of recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (KEYNOTE-012): an open-label, multicentre, phase 1b trial. Lancet Oncol 2016;17:956–965.
Nanda R, Chow LQ, Dees EC et al.. Pembrolizumab in patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer: phase Ib KEYNOTE-012 study. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:2460–2467.
Ott PA, Bang YJ, Berton-Rigaud D et al.. Safety and antitumor activity of pembrolizumab in advanced programmed death ligand 1-positive endometrial cancer: results from the KEYNOTE-028 study. J Clin Oncol 2017;35:2535–2541.
Larkin J, Hodi FS, Wolchok JD. Combined nivolumab and ipilimumab or monotherapy in untreated melanoma. N Engl J Med 2015;373:1270–1271.
Ribas A, Hamid O, Daud A et al.. Association of pembrolizumab with tumor response and survival among patients with advanced melanoma. JAMA 2016;315:1600–1609.
Lee JH, Lyle M, Menzies AM et al.. Metastasis-specific patterns of response and progression with anti-PD-1 treatment in metastatic melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2018;31:404–410.
Khoja L, Kibrio M, Metser U et al.. Patterns of response to anti-PD-1 treatment: an exploratory comparison of four radiological response criteria and associations with overall survival in metastatic melanoma patients. Br J Cancer 2016;115:1186–1192.
Tumeh PC, Harview CL, Yearley JH et al.. PD-1 blockade induces responses by inhibiting adaptive immune resistance. Nature 2014;515:568–571.
Herbst RS, Soria JC, Kowanetz M et al.. Predictive correlates of response to the anti-PD-L1 antibody MPDL3280A in cancer patients. Nature 2014;515:563–567.
Sznol M, Postow MA, Davies MJ et al.. Endocrine-related adverse events associated with immune checkpoint blockade and expert insights on their management. Cancer Treat Rev 2017;58:70–76.
Ariyasu R, Horiike A, Yoshizama T et al.. Adrenal insufficiency related to anti-programmed death-1 therapy. Anticancer Res 2017;37:4229–4232.
Abdel-Rahman O, ElHalawani H, Fouad M. Risk of endocrine complications in cancer patients treated with immune check point inhibitors: a meta-analysis. Future Oncol 2016;12:413–425.
Glantz MJ, Choy H, Yee L. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: rationale, results, and recommendations. Semin Oncol 1997;24:477–483.
Cormio G, Maneo A, Parma G et al.. Central nervous system metastases in patients with ovarian carcinoma. A report of 23 cases and a literature review. Ann Oncol 1995;6:571–574.
Palmieri D, Chambers AF, Felding-Habermann B et al.. The biology of metastasis to a sanctuary site. Clin Cancer Res 2007;13:1656–1662.
Sarela AI, Murphy I, Coit DG, Conlon KC. Metastasis to the adrenal gland: the emerging role of laparoscopic surgery. Ann Surg Oncol 2003;10:1191–1196.
Strong VE, D'Angelica M, Tang L et al.. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for isolated adrenal metastasis. Ann Surg Oncol 2007;14:3392–3400.
de Haas RJ, Rahy Martin AC, Wicherts DA et al.. Long-term outcome in patients with adrenal metastases following resection of colorectal liver metastases. Br J Surg 2009;96:935–940.
Bitik B, Kalpakci Y, Altan E et al.. Successful treatment of primary duodenal carcinoma with bilateral adrenal metastases with docetaxel-cisplatin-5-fluorouracil regimen. Ann Oncol 2009;20:394–395.