SmallridgeRCAinKBAsaSL. American Thyroid Association guidelines for management of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer. Thyroid2012;22:1104–1139.
HowladerNNooneAMKrapchoM eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2012National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Available at: http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2012/based on November 2014 SEER data submission posted to the SEER web site April 2015. Accessed February 4 2016.
DenaroNNigroCLRussiEGMerlanoMC. The role of chemotherapy and latest emerging target therapies in anaplastic thyroid cancer. Onco Targets Ther2013;9:1231–1241.
Ricarte-FilhoJCRyderMChitaleDA. Mutational profile of advanced primary and metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory thyroid cancers reveals distinct pathogenetic roles for BRAF, PIK3CA, and AKT1. Cancer Res2009;69:4885–4893.
SmallridgeRCMarlowLACoplandJA. Anaplastic thyroid cancer: molecular pathogenesis and emerging therapies. Endocr Relat Cancer2009;16:17–44.
BegumSRosenbaumEHenriqueR. BRAF mutations in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: implications for tumor origin, diagnosis and treatment. Mod Pathol2004;17:1359–1363.
JohannessenCMBoehmJSKimSY. COT drives resistance to RAF inhibition through MAP kinase pathway reactivation. Nature2010;468:968–972.
NazarianRShiHWangQ. Melanomas acquire resistance to B-RAF(V600E) inhibition by RTK or N-RAS upregulation. Nature2010;468:973–977.
PoulikakosPIPersaudYJanakiramanM. RAF inhibitor resistance is mediated by dimerization of aberrantly spliced BRAF(V600E). Nature2011;480:387–390.
ThakurMDStuartDD. Molecular pathways: response and resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors in BRAFV600E Tumors. Clin Cancer Res2014;20:1074–1080.
Montero-CondeCRuiz-LlorenteSDominguezJM. Relief of feedback inhibition of HER3 transcription by RAF and MEK inhibitors attenuates their antitumor effects in BRAF-mutant thyroid carcinomas. Cancer Discov2013;3:520–533.
LongGVStroyakovskiyDGogasH. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition versus BRAF inhibition alone in melanoma. N Engl J Med2014;371:1877–1888.
MitsiadesCSNegriJMcMullanC. Targeting BRAFV600E in thyroid carcinoma: therapeutic implications. Molecular cancer therapeutics2007;6:1070–1078.
TakanoTItoYHirokawaM. BRAFV600E mutation in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and their accompanying differentiated carcinomas. Br J Cancer2007;96:1549–1553.
RagazziMCiarrocchiASancisiV. Update on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: morphological, molecular, and genetic features of the most aggressive thyroid cancer. Int J Endocrinol2014;2014:790834.
GuerraASapioMRMarottaV. The primary occurrence of BRAF(V600E) is a rare clonal event in papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab2012;97:517–524.
QuirosRMDingHGGattusoP. Evidence that one subset of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are derived from papillary carcinomas due to BRAF and p53 mutations. Cancer2005;103:2261–2268.
XingMAlzahraniASCarsonKA. Association between BRAF V600E mutation and recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol2015;33:42–50.
KimKBCabanillasMELazarAJ. Clinical responses to vemurafenib in patients with metastatic papillary thyroid cancer harboring BRAF(V600E) mutation. Thyroid2013;23:1277–1283.
FalchookGSLongGVKurzrockR. Dabrafenib in patients with melanoma, untreated brain metastases, and other solid tumors: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial. Lancet2012;379:1893–1901.
McArthurGAPuzanovIAmaravadiR. Marked, homogeneous, and early [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography responses to vemurafenib in BRAF-mutant advanced melanoma. J Clin Oncol2012;30:1628–1634.
McFaddenDGVernonASantiagoPM. p53 constrains progression to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a Braf-mutant mouse model of papillary thyroid cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2014;111:E1600–1609.
PitaJMFigueiredoIFMouraMM. Cell cycle deregulation and TP53 and RAS mutations are major events in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab2014;99:E497–507.
DonghiRLongoniAPilottiS. Gene p53 mutations are restricted to poorly differentiated and undifferentiated carcinomas of the thyroid gland. J Clin Invest1993;91:1753–1760.
FaginJAMatsuoKKarmakarA. High prevalence of mutations of the p53 gene in poorly differentiated human thyroid carcinomas. J Clin Invest1993;91:179–184.
BlagosklonnyMVGiannakakouPWojtowiczM. Effects of p53-expressing adenovirus on the chemosensitivity and differentiation of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab1998;83:2516–2522.
GauchotteGPhilippeCLacommeS. BRAF, p53 and SOX2 in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: evidence for multistep carcinogenesis. Pathology2011;43:447–452.
PastoreYJedlickovaKGuanY. Mutations of von Hippel-Lindau tumor-suppressor gene and congenital polycythemia. Am J Hum Genet2003;73:412–419.