The authors would like to thank Rune Gärtner, Henrik Kehlet, and Niels Kroman for their contributions to this study.
The authors have disclosed that they have no financial interests, arrangements, affiliations, or commercial interests with the manufacturers of any products discussed in this article or their competitors.
This study was supported by the Aase and Ejnar Danielsens Fond and by a grant from the Danish Cancer Society. The study is part of the Europain Collaboration, which has received support from the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking, under grant agreement no 115007, resources of which are composed of financial contribution from the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) and EFPIA companies' in kind contribution.
Deborah J. Moonan, RN, BSN, Director, Continuing Education, has disclosed that she has no relevant financial relationships.
Ann Gianola, MA, Manager, Continuing Education Accreditation & Program Operations, has disclosed that she has no relevant financial relationships.
Kristina M. Gregory, RN, MSN, OCN, Vice President, Clinical Information Operations, has disclosed that she has no relevant financial relationships.
Rashmi Kumar, PhD, Senior Manager, Clinical Content, has disclosed that she has no relevant financial relationships.
Susan Darlow, PhD, Oncology Scientist/Medical Writer, has disclosed that she has no relevant financial relationships.
Andersen KG, Kehlet H. Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment: a critical review of risk factors and strategies for prevention. J Pain 2011;12:725–746.
Mejdahl MK, Andersen KG, Gartner R. Persistent pain and sensory disturbances after treatment for breast cancer: six year nationwide follow-up study. BMJ 2013;346:f1865.
Miaskowski C, Paul SM, Cooper B. Identification of patient subgroups and risk factors for persistent arm/shoulder pain following breast cancer surgery. Eur J Oncol Nurs 2014;18:242–253.
Miaskowski C, Cooper B, Paul SM. Identification of patient subgroups and risk factors for persistent breast pain following breast cancer surgery. J Pain 2012;13:1172–1187.
Peuckmann V, Ekholm O, Rasmussen NK. Chronic pain and other sequelae in long-term breast cancer survivors: nationwide survey in Denmark. Eur J Pain 2009;13:478–485.
Macdonald L, Bruce J, Scott NW. Long-term follow-up of breast cancer survivors with post-mastectomy pain syndrome. Br J Cancer 2005;92:225–230.
Andersen KG, Christensen KB, Kehlet H, Bidstrup PE. The effect of pain on physical functioning after breast cancer treatment: development and validation of an assesment tool [published online ahead of print October 10, 2014]. Clin J Pain, in press.
Ip HY, Abrishami A, Peng PW. Predictors of postoperative pain and analgesic consumption: a qualitative systematic review. Anesthesiology 2009;111:657–677.
Bair MJ, Robinson RL, Katon W, Kroenke K. Depression and pain comorbidity: a literature review. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:2433–2445.
Hirsh AT, George SZ, Bialosky JE, Robinson ME. Fear of pain, pain catastrophizing, and acute pain perception: relative prediction and timing of assessment. J Pain 2008;9:806–812.
Masselin-Dubois A, Attal N, Fletcher D. Are psychological predictors of chronic postsurgical pain dependent on the surgical model? A comparison of total knee arthroplasty and breast surgery for cancer. J Pain 2013;14:854–864.
Belfer I, Schreiber KL, Shaffer JR. Persistent postmastectomy pain in breast cancer survivors: analysis of clinical, demographic, and psychosocial factors. J Pain 2013;14:1185–1195.
Bruce J, Thornton AJ, Powell R. Psychological, surgical, and sociodemographic predictors of pain outcomes after breast cancer surgery: a population-based cohort study. Pain 2014;155:232–243.
Kyranou M, Paul SM, Dunn LB. Differences in depression, anxiety, and quality of life between women with and without breast pain prior to breast cancer surgery. Eur J Oncol Nurs 2013;17:190–195.
Dabrowski M, Boucher K, Ward JH. Clinical experience with the NCCN distress thermometer in breast cancer patients. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2007;5:104–111.
Hegel MT, Moore CP, Collins ED. Distress, psychiatric syndromes, and impairment of function in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Cancer 2006;107:2924–2931.
Mertz BG, Bistrup PE, Johansen C. Psychological distress among women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Eur J Oncol Nurs 2012;16:439–443.
Kroenke K, Wu J, Bair MJ. Reciprocal relationship between pain and depression: a 12-month longitudinal analysis in primary care. J Pain 2011;12:964–973.
Chou KL. Reciprocal relationship between pain and depression in older adults: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. J Affect Disord 2007;102:115–123.
Syrjala KL, Jensen MP, Mendoza ME. Psychological and behavioral approaches to cancer pain management. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:1703–1711.
Bultz BD, Johansen C. Screening for distress, the 6th vital sign: where are we, and where are we going? Psychooncology 2011;20:569–571.
Holland JC, Bultz BD. The NCCN Guideline for distress management: a case for making distress the sixth vital sign. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2007;5:3–7.
Carlson LE, Waller A, Mitchell AJ. Screening for distress and unmet needs in patients with cancer: review and recommendations. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:1160–1177.
Mitchell AJ. Short screening tools for cancer-related distress: a review and diagnostic validity meta-analysis. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2010;8:487–494.
Roth AJ, Kornblith AB, Batel-Copel L. Rapid screening for psychologic distress in men with prostate carcinoma: a pilot study. Cancer 1998;82:1904–1908.
Dworkin RH, Turk DC, Farrar JT. Core outcome measures for chronic pain clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations. Pain 2005;113:9–19.
Gerbershagen HJ, Rothaug J, Kalkman CJ, Meissner W. Determination of moderate-to-severe postoperative pain on the numeric rating scale: a cut-off point analysis applying four different methods. Br J Anaesth 2011;107:619–626.
Akizuki N, Yamawaki S, Akechi T. Development of an Impact Thermometer for use in combination with the Distress Thermometer as a brief screening tool for adjustment disorders and/or major depression in cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005;29:91–99.
Vodermaier A, Millman RD. Accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as a screening tool in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Support Care Cancer 2011;19:1899–1908.
Blichert-Toft M, Christiansen P, Mouridsen HT. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: history, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary. Acta Oncol 2008;47:497–505.
Moller S, Jensen MB, Ejlertsen B. The clinical database and the treatment guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG); its 30-years experience and future promise. Acta Oncol 2008;47:506–524.
Schreiber KL, Martel MO, Shnol H. Persistent pain in postmastectomy patients: comparison of psychophysical, medical, surgical, and psychosocial characteristics between patients with and without pain. Pain 2013;154:660–668.
Werner MU, Mjobo HN, Nielsen PR, Rudin A. Prediction of postoperative pain: a systematic review of predictive experimental pain studies. Anesthesiology 2010;112:1494–1502.
Werner MU, Duun P, Kehlet H. Prediction of postoperative pain by preoperative nociceptive responses to heat stimulation. Anesthesiology 2004;100:115–119.
Tasmuth T, Estlanderb AM, Kalso E. Effect of present pain and mood on the memory of past postoperative pain in women treated surgically for breast cancer. Pain 1996;68:343–347.
Poleshuck EL, Katz J, Andrus CH. Risk factors for chronic pain following breast cancer surgery: a prospective study. J Pain 2006;7:626–634.
Theunissen M, Peters ML, Bruce J. Preoperative anxiety and catastrophizing: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association with chronic postsurgical pain. Clin J Pain 2012;28:819–841.
Johannsen M, Farver I, Beck N, Zachariae R. The efficacy of psychosocial intervention for pain in breast cancer patients and survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2013;138:675–690.