Dr. Mohile has disclosed that she is a consultant for Seattle Genetics, Inc. Dr. Gross has disclosed that he is an advisory board member for FAIR Health, Inc. Dr. Gajra has disclosed that he receives research support from Celgene Corporation and is on the advisory board for Bayer and Celgene Corporation. Dr. Hurria has disclosed that she receives research support from Celgene Corporation and GlaxoSmithKline, and is a consultant for GTx, Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, and Carevive Systems.
The remaining authors have disclosed that they have no financial interests, arrangements, affiliations, or commercial interests with the manufacturers of any products discussed in this article or their competitors. HJC is supported by NIH Grant 5U01AG034661.
This study was supported by K23 AG026749-01 (PI: Hurria) Paul Beeson Career Development Award in Aging Research), and American Society of Clinical Oncology—Association of Specialty Professors—Junior Development Award in Geriatric Oncology (PI: Hurria).
Abstract presentation: Owusu C, Tew W, Hardt M, et al. Anemia and functional disability in older adults with cancer. Presented at the 2012 ASCO Annual Meeting; June 1–5, 2012; Chicago, Illinois.
Nutritional Anaemias. Report of a WHO Scientific Group. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/40707/1/WHO_TRS_405.pdf. Accessed September 21, 2015.
Guralnik JM, Eisenstaedt RS, Ferrucci L et al.. Prevalence of anemia in persons 65 years and older in the United States: evidence for a high rate of unexplained anemia. Blood 2004;104:2263–2268.
Ludwig H, Van Belle S, Barrett-Lee P et al.. The European Cancer Anaemia Survey (ECAS): a large, multinational, prospective survey defining the prevalence, incidence, and treatment of anaemia in cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 2004;40:2293–2306.
Penninx BW, Pahor M, Cesari M et al.. Anemia is associated with disability and decreased physical performance and muscle strength in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52:719–724.
Penninx BW, Pahor M, Woodman RC et al.. Anemia in old age is associated with increased mortality and hospitalization. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006;61:474–479.
Aoe K, Hiraki A, Maeda T et al.. Serum hemoglobin level determined at the first presentation is a poor prognostic indicator in patients with lung cancer. Intern Med 2005;44:800–804.
Beer TM, Tangen CM, Bland LB et al.. Prognostic value of anemia in newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer: a multivariate analysis of southwest oncology group study 8894. J Urol 2004;172(6 Pt 1):2213–2217.
Ludwig H, Muldur E, Endler G, Hubl W. Prevalence of iron deficiency across different tumors and its association with poor performance status, disease status and anemia. Ann Oncol 2013;24:1886–1892.
Mancuso A, Migliorino M, De Santis S et al.. Correlation between anemia and functional/cognitive capacity in elderly lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Ann Oncol 2006;17:146–150.
Repetto L, Fratino L, Audisio RA et al.. Comprehensive geriatric assessment adds information to Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status in elderly cancer patients: an Italian Group for Geriatric Oncology Study. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:494–502.
Hurria A, Togawa K, Mohile SG et al.. Predicting chemotherapy toxicity in older adults with cancer: a prospective multicenter study. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:3457–3465.
Loprinzi CL, Laurie JA, Wieand HS et al.. Prospective evaluation of prognostic variables from patient-completed questionnaires. North Central Cancer Treatment Group. J Clin Oncol 1994;12:601–607.
Katzman R, Brown T, Fuld P et al.. Validation of a short Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test of cognitive impairment. Am J Psychiatry 1983;140:734–739.
Karnofsky D, Burchenal J. The clinical evalaution of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. In: Macleod CM, ed. Evaluation of Chemotherapeutic Agents. New York, NY: Columbia University Press; 1948:191–205.
Fillenbaum GG, Smyer MA. The development, validity, and reliability of the OARS multidimensional functional assessment questionnaire. J Gerontol 1981;36:428–434.
Stewart A & Ware JE Jr. Measuring Functioning and Well-Being: the Medical Outcomes Study Approach. Durham, NC: Duke University Press; 1992.
Ware JE Jr, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care 1992;30:473–483.
Seeman TE, Merkin SS, Crimmins EM, Karlamangla AS. Disability trends among older Americans: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1988-1994 and 1999-2004. Am J Public Health 2010;100:100–107.
Spillman BC. Changes in elderly disability rates and the implications for health care utilization and cost. Milbank Q 2004;82:157–194.
den Elzen WP, Willems JM, Westendorp RG et al.. Effect of anemia and comorbidity on functional status and mortality in old age: results from the Leiden 85-plus Study. CMAJ 2009;181:151–157.
Barrett-Lee P, Bokemeyer C, Gascon P et al.. Management of cancer-related anemia in patients with breast or gynecologic cancer: new insights based on results from the European Cancer Anemia Survey. Oncologist 2005;10:743–757.
Cesari M, Penninx BW, Pahor M et al.. Inflammatory markers and physical performance in older persons: the InCHIANTI study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2004;59:242–248.
Brinkley TE, Leng X, Miller ME et al.. Chronic inflammation is associated with low physical function in older adults across multiple comorbidities. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2009;64:455–461.
Visser M, Pahor M, Taaffe DR et al.. Relationship of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with muscle mass and muscle strength in elderly men and women: the Health ABC Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002;57:M326–332.
Payette H, Roubenoff R, Jacques PF et al.. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and interleukin 6 predict sarcopenia in very old community-living men and women: the Framingham Heart Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51:1237–1243.
Cohen HJ, Harris T, Pieper CF. Coagulation and activation of inflammatory pathways in the development of functional decline and mortality in the elderly. Am J Med 2003;114:180–187.
Penninx BW, Kritchevsky SB, Newman AB et al.. Inflammatory markers and incident mobility limitation in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52:1105–1113.
Bastard JP, Maachi M, Lagathu C et al.. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Eur Cytokine Netw 2006;17:4–12.
Chaves PH, Xue QL, Guralnik JM et al.. What constitutes normal hemoglobin concentration in community-dwelling disabled older women? J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52:1811–1816.
Henke M, Laszig R, Rube C et al.. Erythropoietin to treat head and neck cancer patients with anaemia undergoing radiotherapy: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003;362:1255–1260.
Wright JR, Ung YC, Julian JA et al.. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of erythropoietin in non-small-cell lung cancer with disease-related anemia. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:1027–1032.