The authors have disclosed that they have no financial interests, arrangements, affiliations, or commercial interests with the manufacturers of any products discussed in this article or their competitors.
Kerrin M. Green, MA, Assistant Managing Editor, JNCCN—Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network
Ms. Green has disclosed that she has no relevant financial relationships.
Deborah J. Moonan, RN, BSN, Manager, CE Supporter Outreach
Ms. Moonan has disclosed the following relationship with commercial interests: AstraZeneca: Stockholder/Former Employee.
Kristina M. Gregory, RN, MSN, OCN, Vice President, Clinical Information Operations
Ms. Gregory has disclosed that she has no relevant financial relationships.
Crawford ED, Eisenberger MA, McLeod DG. A controlled trial of leuprolide with and without flutamide in prostatic carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1989;321:419–424.
Eisenberger MA, Blumenstein BA, Crawford ED. Bilateral orchiectomy with or without flutamide for metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 1998;339:1036–1042.
Hellerstedt B, Pienta KJ, Redman BG. Phase II trial of oral cyclophosphamide, prednisone, and diethylstilbestrol for androgen-independent prostate carcinoma. Cancer 2003;98:1603–1610.
Nelius T, Klatte T, de Riese W. Clinical outcome of patients with docetaxel-resistant hormone-refractory prostate cancer treated with second-line cyclophosphamide-based metronomic chemotherapy. Med Oncol 2010;27:363–367.
Oudard S, Banu E, Beuzeboc P. Multicenter randomized phase II study of two schedules of docetaxel, estramustine, and prednisone versus mitoxantrone plus prednisone in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:3343–3351.
Tannock IF, de Wit R, Berry WR. Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1502–1512.
Nelius T, Reiher F, Lindenmeir T. Characterization of prognostic factors and efficacy in a phase-II study with docetaxel and estramustine for advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer. Onkologie 2005;28:573–578.
Petrylak DP, Tangen CM, Hussain MH. Docetaxel and estramustine compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone for advanced refractory prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1513–1520.
Raghavan D, Cox K, Pearson BS. Oral cyclophosphamide for the management of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Br J Urol 1993;72(5 Pt 1):625–628.
Tannock IF, Osoba D, Stockler MR. Chemotherapy with mitoxantrone plus prednisone or prednisone alone for symptomatic hormone-resistant prostate cancer: a Canadian randomized trial with palliative end points. J Clin Oncol 1996;14:1756–1764.
Hanahan D, Bergers G, Bergsland E. Less is more, regularly: metronomic dosing of cytotoxic drugs can target tumor angiogenesis in mice. J Clin Invest 2000;105:1045–1047.
Emmenegger U, Man S, Shaked Y. A comparative analysis of low-dose metronomic cyclophosphamide reveals absent or low-grade toxicity on tissues highly sensitive to the toxic effects of maximum tolerated dose regimens. Cancer Res 2004;64:3994–3400.
Emmenegger U, Francia G, Shaked Y, Kerbel RS. Metronomic chemotherapy: principles and lessons learned from applications in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Recent Results Cancer Res 2010;180:165–183.
Glode LM, Barqawi A, Crighton F. Metronomic therapy with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone for prostate carcinoma. Cancer 2003;98:1643–1648.
Di Lorenzo G, Autorino R, De Laurentiis M. Thalidomide in combination with oral daily cyclophosphamide in patients with pretreated hormone refractory prostate cancer: a phase I clinical trial. Cancer Biol Ther 2007;6:313–317.
Nishimura K, Nonomura N, Ono Y. Oral combination of cyclophosphamide, uracil plus tegafur and estramustine for hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Oncology 2001;60:49–54.
Bracarda S, Tonato M, Rosi P. Oral estramustine and cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic hormone refractory prostate carcinoma: a phase II study. Cancer 2000;88:1438–1444.
Maulard-Durdux C, Dufour B, Hennequin C. Phase II study of the oral cyclophosphamide and oral etoposide combination in hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma patients. Cancer 1996;77:1144–1148.
Wozniak AJ, Blumenstein BA, Crawford ED. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group study. Cancer 1993;71:3975–3978.
Emmenegger U, Francia G, Chow A. Tumors that acquire resistance to low-dose metronomic cyclophosphamide retain sensitivity to maximum tolerated dose cyclophosphamide. Neoplasia 2011;13:40–48.