With photodynamic therapy (PDT), clinicians often forget that it is not just the drug and the light that are important but also how tissue oxygen is managed, stated Gary S. Rogers, MD, Director, Dermatologic Surgery & Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts. “How we administer the energy will determine whether you get tumor apoptosis, tumor necrosis, exactly which vasculature you are going to affect, and how you will affect the immune system by giving the light at a lower dose,” he explained.
Meyer-Betz F. Untersuchung uber die biologische (photodynamische) Wirkung des Hamatoporphyrins und anderer Derivate des Blut- und Gallenfarbstoffs [in German]. Dtsch Arch Klin Med 1913;112:476–503.
Policard A. Etude sur les aspects offerts par des tumeurs expérimentales examinées à la lumière de Wood. Comptes Rendues Hebdomadaires des Séances Mémories la Société Biologie ses Filiales 1924;91:1423–4.
Lipson RL, Gray MJ, Baldes EL. Haematoporphyria derivative for detection and management of cancer. Proceedings of the 9th International Cancer Congress 1966;393.
Gray JG, Lipson R, Maeck J et al.. Use of hematoporphyrin derivative in detection and management of cervical cancer: a preliminary report. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1967;99:766–771.
Cuenca RE, Allison RR, Sibata C, Downie GH. Breast cancer with chest wall progression: treatment with photodynamic therapy. Ann Surg Oncol 2004;11:322–327.
Bisland SK, Lilge L, Lin A et al.. Metronomic photodynamic therapy as a new paradigm for photodynamic therapy: rationale and preclinical evaluation of technical feasibility for treating malignant brain tumors. Photochem Photobiol 2004;80:22–30.
Mathews MS, Angell-Petersen E, Sanchez R et al.. The effects of ultra low fluence rate single and repetitive photodynamic therapy on glioma spheroids. Lasers Surg Med 2009;41:578–584.
Tsutsui H, MacRobert AJ, Curnow A et al.. Optimisation of illumination for photodynamic therapy with mTHPC on normal colon and a transplantable tumour in rats. Lasers Med Sci 2002;17:101–109.
Persico J, Wazer DE, Melanson AM, Rogers GS, Graham R. Continuous low-irradiance photodynamic therapy (CLIPT) as a novel treatment for cutaneous recurrences of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:e11548.
Seshadri M, Bellnier DA, Vaughan LA et al.. Light delivery over extended time periods enhances the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy. Clin Cancer Res 2008;14:2796–2805.