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David D. Chism

Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder is projected to account for 79,030 cases and 16,870 deaths in 2017 in the United States. 1 Median age at diagnosis is 73 years, with main risk factors including smoking, age, and male sex. Of the 70% of

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Pooja Ghatalia and Elizabeth R. Plimack

urothelial carcinoma. PD-L1 positivity is defined as a combined positive score of ≥10 for patients receiving pembrolizumab and immune cell 2/3 for patients receiving atezolizumab. In cisplatin-ineligible patients who are PD-L1–negative, chemotherapy with

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Marina Deuker, Giuseppe Rosiello, Lara Franziska Stolzenbach, Thomas Martin, Claudia Collà Ruvolo, Luigi Nocera, Zhe Tian, Frederik C. Roos, Andreas Becker, Luis A. Kluth, Derya Tilki, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Fred Saad, Felix K.H. Chun and Pierre I. Karakiewicz

Background Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) represents a rare entity, as evidenced by its contribution to only 5% to 10% of urothelial cancers. 1 Due to its rarity, no large-scale observational data are available to describe the distribution

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Thomas W. Flaig

. with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who are cisplatin-ineligible. 1 , 2 Analysis of clinical trial data can identify 3 broad populations of patients: (1) those who show response initially and continue to show response (responders

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Andrew W. Hahn, Smith Giri, Dilan Patel, Heather Sluder, Ari Vanderwalde and Mike G. Martin

Urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis (UCRP) and the ureter is a rare disease, representing 5% of all urothelial malignancies. The incidence of UCRP in the general US population is estimated to be 1.15 per 100,000 person-years. 1 Although

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Stephen A. Brassell and Ashish M. Kamat

To provide a comprehensive review of intravesical treatment options for non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer, we performed a search of the PubMed database for articles between 1980 and 2006 that reported on intravesical agents for treating this disease. Data were compiled and analyzed, emphasizing findings from large multicenter trials, studies providing reproducible results, data that could be confirmed by cross-referencing the literature, and phase I or II studies for pertinent novel agents. A critical analysis of evidence shows that: 1) treatment with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), including a maintenance schedule (with or without interferon-α), is the most effective therapy for limiting recurrence, is the only therapy that reduces the incidence of progression, and overall is superior to chemotherapy; 2) mitomycin C, gemcitabine, anthracyclines, and thiotepa provide similar benefits for preventing recurrence in patients with minimal effect on progression; and 3) using chemotherapeutic agents immediately after transurethral resection (when use of BCG is contraindicated because of the risk for systemic absorption) reduces the recurrence rate by up to 50% and seems to be the ideal method of chemotherapy. Although various clinical factors dictate which agent is most appropriate for an individual patient, the current literature supports a single perioperative dose of intravesical mitomycin C followed, in appropriate cases, by induction and maintenance therapy with intravesical BCG.

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Peter E. Clark, Neeraj Agarwal, Matthew C. Biagioli, Mario A. Eisenberger, Richard E. Greenberg, Harry W. Herr, Brant A. Inman, Deborah A. Kuban, Timothy M. Kuzel, Subodh M. Lele, Jeff Michalski, Lance C. Pagliaro, Sumanta K. Pal, Anthony Patterson, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Kamal S. Pohar, Michael P. Porter, Jerome P. Richie, Wade J. Sexton, William U. Shipley, Eric J. Small, Philippe E. Spiess, Donald L. Trump, Geoffrey Wile, Timothy G. Wilson, Mary Dwyer and Maria Ho

recently appreciated nested micropapillary and sarcomatoid subtypes. 3 These should be treated as urothelial carcinomas. The systemic chemotherapy regimens used to treat urothelial carcinomas (transitional cell tumors) are generally ineffective for

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James E. Montie, Peter E. Clark, Mario A. Eisenberger, Rizk El-Galley, Richard E. Greenberg, Harry W. Herr, Gary R. Hudes, Deborah A. Kuban, Timothy M. Kuzel, Paul H. Lange, Subodh M. Lele, Jeffrey Michalski, Anthony Patterson, Kamal S. Pohar, Jerome P. Richie, Wade J. Sexton, William U. Shipley, Eric J. Small, Donald L. Trump, Phillip J. Walther and Timothy G. Wilson

. 2 Wasco MJ Daignault S Zhang Y . Urothelial carcinoma with divergent histologic differentiation (mixed histologic features) predicts the presence of locally advanced bladder cancer when detected at transurethral resection . Urology 2007 ; 70

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Thomas W. Flaig, Philippe E. Spiess, Neeraj Agarwal, Rick Bangs, Stephen A. Boorjian, Mark K. Buyyounouski, Sam Chang, Tracy M. Downs, Jason A. Efstathiou, Terence Friedlander, Richard E. Greenberg, Khurshid A. Guru, Thomas Guzzo, Harry W. Herr, Jean Hoffman-Censits, Christopher Hoimes, Brant A. Inman, Masahito Jimbo, A. Karim Kader, Subodh M. Lele, Jeff Michalski, Jeffrey S. Montgomery, Lakshminarayanan Nandagopal, Lance C. Pagliaro, Sumanta K. Pal, Anthony Patterson, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Kamal S. Pohar, Mark A. Preston, Wade J. Sexton, Arlene O. Siefker-Radtke, Jonathan Tward, Jonathan L. Wright, Lisa A. Gurski and Alyse Johnson-Chilla

prognosis in patients with bladder cancer and diabetes. 6 Certain genetic syndromes, most notably Lynch syndrome, may also predispose an individual to urothelial carcinoma. 7 The clinical spectrum of bladder cancer can be divided into 3 categories that

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Joshua I. Warrick

Pathologists have identified many bladder cancer (BCA) histomorphologies that differ from conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC; also known as transitional cell carcinoma ). Several of these histologic variants are biologically aggressive, and