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Adam L. Cohen and John H. Ward

intermediate-grade DCIS was met. The study population included 565 women with low- or intermediate-grade DCIS and 105 women with high-grade DCIS. Approximately 30% of women in each group took tamoxifen for some time. After a median follow-up of more than 6

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Michaela J. Higgins, James M. Rae, David A. Flockhart, Daniel F. Hayes, and Vered Stearns

, and side effects . N Engl J Med 2003 ; 348 : 538 – 549 . 5 Desta Z Ward BA Soukhova NV . Comprehensive evaluation of tamoxifen sequential biotransformation by the human cytochrome P450 system in vitro: prominent roles for CYP3A and CYP2D

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Therese B. Bevers, Deborah K. Armstrong, Banu Arun, Robert W. Carlson, Kenneth H. Cowan, Mary B. Daly, Irvin Fleming, Judy E. Garber, Mary Gemignani, William J. Gradishar, Helen Krontiras, Swati Kulkarni, Christine Laronga, Loretta Loftus, Deborah J. MacDonald, Martin C. Mahoney, Sofia D. Merajver, Ingrid Meszoely, Lisa Newman, Elizabeth Pritchard, Victoria Seewaldt, Rena V. Sellin, Charles L. Shapiro, and John H. Ward

reduction agents/strategies, such as tamoxifen, raloxifene, and risk reduction surgery, have been identified. However, women and their physicians who are considering interventions to reduce risk for breast cancer must balance the demonstrated benefits with

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Tiffany H. Svahn, Joyce C. Niland, Robert W. Carlson, Melissa E. Hughes, Rebecca A. Ottesen, Richard L. Theriault, Stephen B. Edge, Anne F. Schott, Michael A. Bookman, and Jane C. Weeks

overview of the randomised trials . Lancet 2005 ; 365 : 1687 – 1717 . 2 Baum M . The ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) adjuvant breast cancer trial in postmenopausal (PM) women [abstract] . Breast Cancer Res Treat 2001

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Robert W. Carlson, Clifford A. Hudis, and Kathy I. Pritchard

early breast cancer . Oncology (Williston Park) 2005 ; 19 : 1425 – 1428 , 1433 . 2. Osborne CK . Tamoxifen in the treatment of breast cancer . N Engl J Med 1998 ; 339 : 1609 – 1618 . 3. Field MJ Lohr KN , eds. Clinical

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Kostandinos Sideras and Charles L. Loprinzi

cancer risk reduction be discussed and considered as an option for women with increased risk of developing breast cancer. 6 , 7 For postmenopausal women, the currently approved agents are tamoxifen and raloxifene, both recommended for a maximum of 5

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Martin C. Mahoney

cancer risk: estrogen versus estrogen plus progestin . J Natl Cancer Inst 2000 ; 92 : 328 – 332 . 22. Fisher B Costantino JP Wickerham DL . Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel

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Robert W. Carlson, D. Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, W. Bradford Carter, Stephen B. Edge, John K. Erban, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Britt-Marie Ljung, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Mary Lou Smith, George Somlo, Neal S. Topham, John H. Ward, Eric P. Winer, and Antonio C. Wolff

tamoxifen given for 5 years is associated with an approximately 46% reduction (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.27–1.02) in the risk of developing invasive breast cancer among women with LCIS. 37 , 38 Results from the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene

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Amelia B. Zelnak and Ruth M. O'Regan

endocrine therapy, or how long this treatment should be given. Whether a subset of premenopausal women with HR-positive early-stage breast cancer should receive ovarian ablation in combination with tamoxifen remains unclear. In the metastatic setting

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Janice S. Kwon, Gary Pansegrau, Melica Nourmoussavi, Geoffrey L. Hammond, and Mark S. Carey

Background Recent evidence suggests that extending endocrine therapy for another 5 years after the initial 5 years of tamoxifen is beneficial for premenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)–positive breast cancer. In the ATLAS (Adjuvant