. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery . J Neurooncol 2001 ; 54 : 187 – 195 . 31 Louw DF Fielding T McBeth PB . Surgical robotics: a review and neurosurgical prototype development . Neurosurgery 2004 ; 54 : 525 – 536 ; discussion 536–527 .
Christopher M. McPherson and Raymond Sawaya
Shrujal Baxi, Matthew Fury, Ian Ganly, Shyam Rao, and David G. Pfister
using the da Vinci surgical robot for the resection of oropharynx tumors is growing. 28 The goal of minimally invasive procedures is to decrease surgical morbidity and reduce hospitalizations with the same overall survival as traditional open surgery