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Jason H. Lee, Tariq Mohamed, Celia Ramsey, Jihoon Kim, Shelly Kane, Kathryn A. Gold, Farhoud Faraji, and Joseph A. Califano III

Background Cancer staging categorizes the size, location, and extent of the primary tumor; the extent of lymph node involvement; and the presence of distant metastases. Accurate staging documentation is critical for guideline evaluation

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Urshila Durani, Dennis Asante, Thorvardur Halfdanarson, Herbert C. Heien, Lindsey Sangaralingham, Carrie A. Thompson, Prema Peethambaram, Fernando J. Quevedo, and Ronald S. Go

NCCN and CCO, however, do not recommend routine PET scans either in staging or for surveillance. 3 , 5 Other major organizations, including the American Cancer Society and ESMO, have produced similar guidelines. 6 , 7 Table 1. Guideline Recommendations

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Kwang-Yu Chang, Jang-Yang Chang, Joseph Chao, and Yun Yen

. Endosonographic staging of esophageal cancer: a review of literature results . Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 1995 ; 5 : 537 – 547 . 5. Chandawarkar RY Kakegawa T Fujita H . Endosonography for preoperative staging of specific nodal groups associated

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Aysegul A. Sahin, Timothy D. Gilligan, and Jimmy J. Caudell

Breast Cancer Staging “Breast carcinoma is a heterogeneous disease. Classic prognostic and predictive factors for staging include patient age, tumor grade, histologic subtypes, hormone receptor [HR] and HER2 status, vascular invasion, and tumor

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Gregory P. Kalemkerian and Shirish M. Gadgeel

staging system for the classification of patients with SCLC. Describe the optimal staging work-up for patients with SCLC. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by neuroendocrine differentiation, early metastatic spread, and initial

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Siddhartha Yadav, Sri Harsha Tella, Anuhya Kommalapati, Kristin Mara, Kritika Prasai, Mohamed Hamdy Mady, Mohamed Hassan, Rory L. Smoot, Sean P. Cleary, Mark J. Truty, Lewis R. Roberts, and Amit Mahipal

diagnosis. 5 The current AJCC TNM staging system for GBC is primarily based on surgical pathology. 6 It relies on accurate evaluation of tumor infiltration into the layers of gallbladder, which can only be achieved through complete surgical excision of the

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Colby J. Hyland, Flora Varghese, Christina Yau, Heather Beckwith, Katia Khoury, William Varnado, Gillian L. Hirst, Robert R. Flavell, A. Jo Chien, Douglas Yee, Claudine J. Isaacs, Andres Forero-Torres, Laura J. Esserman, and Michelle E. Melisko

-dependent. Some studies have shown de novo metastatic disease rates of 15% in patients with stage II disease 2 and >40% in patients with stage III disease. 3 , 4 Greater metastatic disease risk in clinical stage II–III breast cancer may warrant baseline staging

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Ata S. Moshiri and Paul Nghiem

joining 6 other viruses now known to be either direct or indirect causes of approximately 50 human malignancies. 5 History of MCC Staging Before 2010 Before 2010, 5 different staging systems were used in the management of MCC ( Table 1 ), 6 - 10 all

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Judd E. Cummings, J. Andrew Ellzey, and Robert K. Heck

– 656 . 14. Kerns LL Simon MA . Surgical theory, staging, definitions and treatment of musculoskeletal sarcomas . Surg Clin N Am 1983 ; 63 : 671 – 696 . 15. Pommersheim WJ Chew FS . Imaging, diagnosis, and staging of bone

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Justin M. M. Cates

Considerable changes in the clinical and pathologic staging of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) are presented in the 8th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 1 There are some obvious improvements, such as the creation of separate staging schemes