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Peter B. Bach

Because lung cancer frequently presents in an advanced stage when it is incurable, there has been a sustained search for an early diagnosis approach that could detect lung cancer when curable, while having few secondary consequences. Decades of research have evaluated various approaches to lung screening, including routine chest radiograph, sputum cytology, and, most recently, computed tomography (CT) scanning. No study has suggested that any of these approaches will identify life-threatening lung cancers at an earlier disease stage and allow alteration of their natural history. Therefore, no recommending body or professional society recommends using any of these approaches to screen for lung cancer. This general recommendation could change if randomized trials examining CT screening suggest that its benefits outweigh its harms.

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Rebecca P. Petersen and David H. Harpole Jr.

Although lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world and has an increased chance of cure if detected at an earlier stage, routine lung cancer screening is currently not recommended in the United States. Unfortunately, most patients with lung cancer present only after the onset of symptoms and have advanced disease that cannot be surgically resected. The overall 5-year survival rate for all patients with lung cancer is only 15%. When the cancer is detected at its earliest stage (pathologic stage IA), however, the 5-year survival rate is more than 70%. Although past randomized screening trials evaluating the use of standard chest radiography or sputum cytology have not resulted in lower mortality, recent studies suggest that computed tomography (CT) may have promise as a screening tool. This article summarizes experience over the past decade of using low-dose spiral CT imaging as a screening tool to detect early lung cancers in asymptomatic, high-risk individuals.

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Jennifer A. Lewis, Heidi Chen, Kathryn E. Weaver, Lucy B. Spalluto, Kim L. Sandler, Leora Horn, Robert S. Dittus, Pierre P. Massion, Christianne L. Roumie and Hilary A. Tindle

correctly identifying these 3 criteria. Outcomes: LCS Tests The primary outcome was self-reported order/referral of LDCT within the past year. Secondary outcomes were self-reported ordering of nonrecommended LCS tests: chest radiograph and sputum cytology

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Harubumi Kato

( Figure 2 ). His first case of PDT was for a tiny squamous cell carcinoma detected with sputum cytology in a 74-year-old man. A curative result was obtained. In another case, a 59-year-old woman with asthma and poor lung function underwent PDT. She was

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David S. Ettinger, Wallace Akerley, Gerold Bepler, Matthew G. Blum, Andrew Chang, Richard T. Cheney, Lucian R. Chirieac, Thomas A. D'Amico, Todd L. Demmy, Apar Kishor P. Ganti, Ramaswamy Govindan, Frederic W. Grannis Jr., Thierry Jahan, Mohammad Jahanzeb, David H. Johnson, Anne Kessinger, Ritsuko Komaki, Feng-Ming Kong, Mark G. Kris, Lee M. Krug, Quynh-Thu Le, Inga T. Lennes, Renato Martins, Janis O'Malley, Raymond U. Osarogiagbon, Gregory A. Otterson, Jyoti D. Patel, Katherine M. Pisters, Karen Reckamp, Gregory J. Riely, Eric Rohren, George R. Simon, Scott J. Swanson, Douglas E. Wood and Stephen C. Yang

guidelines follow the same pathway as that for stage IV, M1b (solitary site) tumors (see page 751). In a small subset of patients, recurrence will be suspected based only on positive sputum cytology (see page 756). In this situation, the guidelines