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Mark Bloomston, Henry Kaufman, John Winston, Mark Arnold, and Edward Martin

colectomy for colon cancer . N Engl J Med 2004 ; 350 : 2050 – 2059 . 3 Weeks JC Nelson H Gelber S . Short-term quality-of-life outcomes following laparoscopic-assisted colectomy vs open colectomy for colon cancer: a randomized trial . JAMA

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Joseph A. Greer, Jamie M. Jacobs, Nicole Pensak, Lauren E. Nisotel, Joel N. Fishbein, James J. MacDonald, Molly E. Ream, Emily A. Walsh, Joanne Buzaglo, Alona Muzikansky, Inga T. Lennes, Steven A. Safren, William F. Pirl, and Jennifer S. Temel

real time, ideally enhancing care for patients prescribed oral cancer therapies. We conducted a randomized trial to test the use of a smartphone mobile app to promote adherence to oral therapy for cancer and symptom management. We hypothesized that

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Claudia S.E.W. Schuurhuizen, Annemarie M.J. Braamse, Aartjan T.F. Beekman, Pim Cuijpers, Mecheline H.M. van der Linden, Adriaan W. Hoogendoorn, Hans Berkhof, Dirkje W. Sommeijer, Vera Lustig, Suzan Vrijaldenhoven, Haiko J. Bloemendal, Cees J. van Groeningen, Annette A. van Zweeden, Maurice J.D.L. van der Vorst, Ron Rietbroek, Cathrien S. Tromp-van Driel, Machteld N.W. Wymenga, Peter W. van der Linden, Aart Beeker, Marco B. Polee, Erdogan Batman, Maartje Los, Aart van Bochove, Jan A.C. Brakenhoff, Inge R.H.M. Konings, Henk M.W. Verheul, and Joost Dekker

) to create optimal conditions for a screening and treatment program targeting psychological distress. The goal of this cluster randomized trial (CRT) was to assess the effectiveness of the TES program in improving psychological distress compared with

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Adam L. Cohen and John H. Ward

as an ER agonist in bone and endometrium. 8 It is FDA-approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, the adjuvant treatment of invasive breast cancer and DCIS, and breast cancer risk reduction in high-risk women. Three randomized trials have

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Brittany Bauman, Rosemarie Mick, Eileen Martinez, Theresa M. Lawless, Lindsey Zinck, Paige Sinclair, Mary Fuhrer, Mark O’Hara, Charles J. Schneider, Peter O’Dwyer, John Plastaras, Ursina Teitelbaum, and Kim A. Reiss

during chemotherapy infusion can reduce toxicity to those regions, presumably because of local vasoconstriction. A randomized trial by Nangia et al 6 showed that the application of a “cold cap” during chemotherapy infusion reduced alopecia up to 50% in

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Bishal Gyawali, Elvira D’Andrea, Jessica M. Franklin, and Aaron S. Kesselheim

, physicians, and regulators should be more confident in relying on RRs and DoRs derived from single-arm trials in this context. 3 Some have even argued that for targeted drugs, the need for randomized trials has been eliminated because the durable responses

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Ashraf Z. Badros

9028 trial. 7 Only one trial, SWOG 9210, has shown a survival benefit with corticosteroid maintenance therapy. 8 In this randomized trial, a prednisone regimen of 50 mg every other day significantly improved median PFS (14 vs. 5 months; P = .003

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Paul B. Chapman

High dose interferon-α (HD IFN) is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for adjuvant treatment of patients with stage III melanoma after complete surgical resection. Despite this, clinicians and patients around the world and in many parts of the US have failed to embrace this treatment option because of the lack of overall survival benefit and minimal other clinical benefits seen in randomized trials, combined with the therapy's substantial toxicity. This article reviews the data from the randomized trials that lead to this conclusion and discuss why arguments often advanced in favor of using HD IFN are not persuasive. New treatment options are needed for adjuvant therapy of melanoma. In the meantime, the data from the randomized trials make it difficult for many clinicians and patients to have enthusiasm for adjuvant HD IFN.

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Bruce D. Minsky, Claus Rödel, and Vincenzo Valentini

The 2 broad approaches to preoperative therapy for rectal cancer are chemoradiation and short-course radiation. The evolution to preoperative therapy is based on data from 2 randomized trials in which patients received preoperative therapy

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Michael B. Streiff, Bjorn Holmstrom, Dana Angelini, Aneel Ashrani, Paula L. Bockenstedt, Carolyn Chesney, John Fanikos, Randolph B. Fenninger, Annemarie E. Fogerty, Shuwei Gao, Samuel Z. Goldhaber, Krishna Gundabolu, Paul Hendrie, Alfred I. Lee, Jason T. Lee, Janelle Mann, Brandon McMahon, Michael M. Millenson, Colleen Morton, Thomas L. Ortel, Sadat Ozair, Rita Paschal, Sanford Shattil, Tanya Siddiqi, Kristi J. Smock, Gerald Soff, Tzu-Fei Wang, Eliot Williams, Anaadriana Zakarija, Lydia Hammond, Mary A. Dwyer, and Anita M. Engh

Guidelines Insights review prospective randomized trial data supporting the current recommended options, including data supporting the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), and guidelines for patient selection and safe administration of these agents