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Daniel Boakye, Viola Walter, Lina Jansen, Uwe M. Martens, Jenny Chang-Claude, Michael Hoffmeister and Hermann Brenner

Background With an approximately 4.4% lifetime risk, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world. 1 Although prognosis has improved recently, >40% of patients with CRC still die within 5 years of diagnosis

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Jill Corre and Hervé Avet-Loiseau

Analyze how specific genetic abnormalities affect the prognosis of multiple myeloma Evaluate how genetic findings in multiple myeloma can affect the choice of treatment Despite major improvements in the prognosis of multiple myeloma in the past decade

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Michael J. Monument and Kevin B. Jones

osteosarcomagenesis. 23 Roughly 35% of sporadic osteosarcomas are associated with direct inactivation of the RB1 locus (DNA mutations, loss of heterozygosity, and deletion), although RB inactivation does not seem to correlate with prognosis. 24 Mutations or

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Stefanie S. Jeffrey, Per Eystein Lønning and Bruce E. Hillner

breast cancer . Cancer Res 2002 ; 62 : 6240 – 6245 . 22 Bertucci F Houlgatte R Granjeaud S . Prognosis of breast cancer and gene expression profiling using DNA arrays . Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002 ; 975 : 217 – 231 . 23 Ellis M

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Caijin Lin, Jiayi Wu, Shuning Ding, Chihwan Goh, Lisa Andriani, Shuangshuang Lu, Kunwei Shen and Li Zhu

histologic grade and HER2, estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR) status. Hence, further subdivision of the M1 category for metastatic disease is of clinical importance for accurate prognosis prediction and personalized treatment planning. 9

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Charles L. Loprinzi and Peter M. Ravdin

Decisions regarding the use of adjuvant cytotoxic and hormonal therapies for women with breast cancer ideally should be made jointly by the patient and oncologist. For patients to be adequately involved in this decision-making process, they must be provided with appropriate education regarding the potential benefits and risks of adjuvant therapies. The recommended steps for doing this are: 1) understand baseline prognosis with locoregional therapy (surgery, radiation, or both) alone for the individual patient at hand; 2) determine the estimated benefit afforded by adjuvant therapy options for the individual patient; 3) estimate the risk of side effects of adjuvant therapy options; 4) convey the above information to the individual patient; 5) facilitate the individual patient's decision regarding adjuvant systemic therapy; and 6) support the patient's decision. Two computer-based tools (Numeracy and Adjuvant!) are available to facilitate this process.

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Peter L. Greenberg

prognostic features associated with disease stability or progression. Clinical Features Prognostic Characterization The International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) has been an important standard for assessing the prognosis of adult patients

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Thomas Schmidt, Florian Lordick, Ken Herrmann and Katja Ott

interesting aspect of functional imaging in esophageal cancer, is the possibility of predicting response and prognosis before, during, and after preoperative treatment. Finally, therapy can be altered based on the evaluation of the FDG-PET response. However

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Kim Margolin

transplantation in first-line therapy for patients with poor-risk germ cell tumors . J Clin Oncol 1997 ; 15 : 2546 – 2552 . 15 Fizazi K Kramar A Culine S . The early decline of tumor markers predicts outcome in poor-prognosis non-seminomatous germ

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Michael A. Gold

Grigsby PW . Measurement of tumor volume by PET to evaluate prognosis in patients with advanced cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002 ; 53 : 353 – 359 . 36. Miller TR Pinkus E Dehdashti F Grigsby