Background: The burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, little is known about CRC treatment and survival in the region. Methods: A random sample of 653 patients with CRC diagnosed from 2011 to 2015 was obtained from 11 population-based cancer registries in SSA. Information on clinical characteristics, treatment, and/or vital status was obtained from medical records in treating hospitals for 356 (54%) of the patients (“traced cohort”). Concordance of CRC treatment with NCCN Harmonized Guidelines for SSA was assessed. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the association between survival and human development index (HDI). Results: Of the 356 traced patients with CRC, 51.7% were male, 52.8% were from countries with a low HDI, 55.1% had colon cancer, and 73.6% were diagnosed with nonmetastatic (M0) disease. Among the patients with M0 disease, however, only 3.1% received guideline-concordant treatment, 20.6% received treatment with minor deviations, 31.7% received treatment with major deviations, and 35.1% received no treatment. The risk of death in patients who received no cancer-directed therapy was 3.49 (95% CI, 1.83–6.66) times higher than in patients who received standard treatment or treatment with minor deviations. Similarly, the risk of death in patients from countries with a low HDI was 1.67 (95% CI, 1.07–2.62) times higher than in those from countries with a medium HDI. Overall survival at 1 and 3 years was 70.9% (95% CI, 65.5%–76.3%) and 45.3% (95% CI, 38.9%–51.7%), respectively. Conclusions: Fewer than 1 in 20 patients diagnosed with potentially curable CRC received standard of care in SSA, reinforcing the need to improve healthcare infrastructure, including the oncology and surgical workforce.