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Nabil El-Hadi Omar, Sahar Nasser, Mahmoud Gasim, Maneesh Khanna, Abdulqadir J. Nashwan, Jonas W. Feilchenfeldt, Kakil Rasul and Anas Hamad

Background: Microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) is shown to predict response to the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPi). Recently, the FDA granted an accelerated approval for the use of pembrolizumab in any solid tumor and nivolumab in

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Rona Yaeger

heterogeneity in microsatellite instability (MSI) status between primary and metastatic sites and among different metastatic sites. This question is clinically important and timely because immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab, have

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Wen-Zhuo He, Wan-Ming Hu, Fang Wang, Yu-Ming Rong, Lin Yang, Qian-Kun Xie, Yuan-Zhong Yang, Chang Jiang, Hui-Juan Qiu, Jia-Bin Lu, Bei Zhang, Pei-Rong Ding, Xiao-Jun Xia, Jian-Yong Shao and Liang-Ping Xia

cancer alone. 3 The mismatch repair (MMR)/microsatellite instability (MSI) pathway significantly contributes to CRC development 12 , 13 and is associated with the immune microenvironment. 14 , 15 However, although the distinct features of MSI-high (MSI

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Heather Hampel

and their relatives. The best example of this is the current movement to screen all patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer for Lynch syndrome using microsatellite instability (MSI) testing or immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for the

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Michael J. Hall

appropriately. Traditionally, family history was the primary way to identify individuals with Lynch. 2 – 5 When guided by family history–based criteria, 2 , 3 2 tumor-based screening tests (microsatellite instability [MSI] and immunohistochemical [IHC

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Michael S. Lee, David G. Menter and Scott Kopetz

-sided CRCs but not right-sided CRCs. 38 , 39 Biologic Characteristics of Colon Cancers That Vary by Side CIMP, Microsatellite Instability, and Chromosomal Instability Alternative paths of CRC carcinogenesis that are significantly correlated with

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Heather H. Cheng, Alexandra O. Sokolova, Edward M. Schaeffer, Eric J. Small and Celestia S. Higano

repair deficiency; HRD, homologous recombination DNA repair; MSI-H, microsatellite instability-high; PV/LPV, pathologic variant or likely pathologic variant. Sequencing DNA for tumor-acquired genetic changes (also referred to as somatic mutations

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Katherine Van Loon and Alan P. Venook

seem surprising, it is actually consistent with the fact that a greater proportion of tumors with high-level microsatellite instability (MSI) exhibit poorly differentiated histology. 22 , 23 Patients with MSI-high tumors, leading to defective DNA

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Vivek Subbiah and Kanishka Sircar

surrogate for tumor mutational burden (TMB), and the presence of an inactivating MLH1 alteration (a marker for mismatch repair deficiency [dMMR]/microsatellite instability-high [MSI-H] tumor). Despite the patient’s PTCH1 mutation, the tumor did not

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Matthew F. Kalady

microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) CRC. Increased hypermethylation particularly occurs in promoter areas rich in cytosine and guanine dinucleotide repeats, or CpG islands. Thus, the associated cancers have been termed CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP