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Susan Lester

without radiologic, visual, or palpable guidance, surgeons must make an educated guess as to where and how much tissue to remove. After removal, the surgeon should orient the specimen and mark the location of margins. This is important to help guide

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Joyce Y. Wong and Vernon K. Sondak

.medscape.org/journal/jnccn ; (4) view/print certificate. Release date: March 5, 2012; Expiration date: March 5, 2013. Learning Objectives Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to: Distinguish current recommendations for surgical margins in

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Vivek Verma, Amy C. Moreno, Waqar Haque, Penny Fang and Steven H. Lin

with pN2 disease and those with pN1 disease not receiving chemotherapy 3 ; this has since been corroborated by large-volume retrospective studies. 4 , 5 PORT is also indicated for suspected or involved surgical margins. 1 , 6 , 7 However, what

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Lieke Gietelink, Michel W.J.M. Wouters, Pieter J. Tanis, Marion M. Deken, Martijn G. ten Berge, Rob A.E.M. Tollenaar, J. Han van Krieken, Mirre E. de Noo and on behalf of the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Cancer Audit Group

)radiotherapy have led to improved oncologic outcomes. 2 , 3 The circumferential resection margin (CRM) indicates the distance from the tumor to the resection plane in a transverse section through the TME specimen. Tumor-negative noninvolved CRM is defined as the

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John G. Huff

. To be regarded as a simple cyst, a mass must meet 3 criteria: its margins must be circumscribed (i.e., a margin “that is well defined or sharp, with an abrupt transition between the lesion and surrounding tissue” 3 ); it must be anechoic (i

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Charlotte E.L. Klaver, Lieke Gietelink, Willem A. Bemelman, Michel W.J.M. Wouters, Theo Wiggers, Rob A.E.M. Tollenaar, Pieter J. Tanis and on behalf of the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit Group

postoperative course. The subcategories for radicality of resections were R0, which denoted complete tumor resection with all margins histologically uninvolved; R1, which denoted incomplete resection with microscopic surgical resection margin involvement; and R2

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Alyson Haslam, Jennifer Gill and Vinay Prasad

prespecified margin. With this in mind, researchers, physicians, and patients are left to balance an acceptable loss in efficacy for alternative advantages, such as financial, physical, or ease of administration. 2 To determine NI, trials should use

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Robert E. Glasgow, David H. Ilson, James A. Hayman, Hans Gerdes, Mary F. Mulcahy and Jaffer A. Ajani

, preferably, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) biopsy of the lesion to evaluate for submucosal extension. For patients with a T1aN0M0 tumor, treatment options include EMR with negative pathologic margins and ablation of at-risk adjacent mucosa or

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Yue Chen, Zi-Qi Zheng, Fo-Ping Chen, Jian-Ye Yan, Xiao-Dan Huang, Feng Li, Ying Sun and Guan-Qun Zhou

dissection, 6 nodes per patient were dissected on average. Radiotherapy Indications for PORT included large primary tumor, nerve invasion, positive margins, or the surgeons considered the primary tumor unresectable and recommended PORT. Different RT

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Parvin F. Peddi and Andrea Wang-Gillam

, neoadjuvant therapy for borderline resectable disease offers a chance at increasing negative margin resection rate for a greater number of patients while sparing patients who develop metastatic disease during therapy from a major surgery. In the patient