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William C. Huang and Bernard H. Bochner

dissection, and bilateral uretero-enterostomy . J Urol 1950 ; 63 : 242 – 260 . 4. Mills RD Turner WH Fleischmann A . Pelvic lymph node metastases from bladder cancer: outcome in 83 patients after radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy

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Matthew D. Galsky, Harry W. Herr and Dean F. Bajorin

cancer outcomes after radical cystectomy . Urology 2003 ; 61 : 105 – 108 . 6 Konety BR Joslyn SA O'Donnell MA . Extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy and its impact on outcome in patients diagnosed with bladder cancer: Analysis of data from the

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William J. Ellis and Paul H. Lange

Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is now one of the most common ways to treat prostate cancer. Although it is undoubtedly an outstanding procedure, in many contexts the advantages of the laparoscopic approach are overstated. The authors believe that open radical prostatectomy will continue to have an important role. For example, an extensive lymphadenectomy is more easily accomplished with the open technique and may be important in staging and possibly curing patients at high risk for prostate cancer. Also, tactile sensation is a valuable asset in assessing the extent of local tumor, and this cannot yet be replicated with a robotic approach. Furthermore, obese patients, those with a history of extensive prior surgical procedures, and men with extremely large prostates may experience advantages with the open technique. Finally, the open approach has a significant advantage in terms of hospital costs.

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Michael P. Porter and Paul H. Lange

Renal tumors are a common cause of cancer, and renal cell carcinoma accounts for the vast majority of the renal tumors in the United States. The past two decades have produced numerous advances in the treatment of localized and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Nephron-sparing surgery, laparoscopic nephrectomy, and energy-ablative techniques are now in the armamentarium of the urologist. The role of adrenalectomy and lymphadenectomy are better understood today than in decades past, and recent advances in the understanding of immunotherapy, cytoreductive nephrectomy, and metastatic disease have also improved treatment for this disease. As is often the case as technology and knowledge evolve, controversies regarding the surgical treatment of renal cancer exist. This article outlines some of these controversies and reviews the evidence surrounding each.

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Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum

cancer Compare and contrast the surgical strategies of SLN mapping, complete or selective lymphadenectomy, or no nodal evaluation in patients with endometrial cancer Define the key factors for successful SLN mapping including adherence to an SLN

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Scott M. Gilbert and Brent K. Hollenbeck

curative resection of colon cancer: systematic review . J Natl Cancer Inst 2007 ; 99 : 433 – 441 . 3 Konety BR Joslyn SA O’Donnell MA . Extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy and its impact on outcome in patients diagnosed with bladder cancer

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Meaghan Tenney and Joan L. Walker

lymphadenectomy vs. no lymphadenectomy in early-stage endometrial carcinoma: randomized clinical trial . J Natl Cancer Inst 2008 ; 100 : 1707 – 1716 . 9 ASTEC Study Group Writing Committee . Efficacy of systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy in

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Daniel G. Coit, John A. Thompson, Robert Andtbacka, Christopher J. Anker, Christopher K. Bichakjian, William E. Carson III, Gregory A. Daniels, Adil Daud, Dominick DiMaio, Martin D. Fleming, Rene Gonzalez, Valerie Guild, Allan C. Halpern, F. Stephen Hodi Jr, Mark C. Kelley, Nikhil I. Khushalani, Ragini R. Kudchadkar, Julie R. Lange, Mary C. Martini, Anthony J. Olszanski, Merrick I. Ross, April Salama, Susan M. Swetter, Kenneth K. Tanabe, Vijay Trisal, Marshall M. Urist, Nicole R. McMillian and Maria Ho

of combining temozolomide with RT when treating brain metastases. 11 , 12 NCCN Recommendations Consideration of adjuvant RT after lymphadenectomy is a category 2B recommendation for select patients with stage III disease and clinically positive

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Elizabeth G. Grubbs and Douglas B. Evans

case for lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy in the management of primary melanoma . Br J Dermatol 2004 ; 151 : 308 – 319 . 14. Kelemen PR Van Herle AJ Giuliano AE . Sentinel lymphadenectomy in thyroid malignant neoplasms

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Prajnan Das, Yixing Jiang, Jeffrey H. Lee, Manoop S. Bhutani, William A. Ross, Paul F. Mansfield and Jaffer A. Ajani

resection (R0) and grossly negative margins of at least 5-cm. 15 Controversy persists regarding the optimal extent of lymphadenectomy. The current AJCC staging system requires pathologic assessment of at least 15 regional nodes for gastric cancer. 19