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Stacy Loeb and William J. Catalona

Active monitoring strategies recently have received attention as possible treatment options for men with low-risk prostate cancer who have a life expectancy of more than 10 years. However, no current criteria sufficiently predict outcomes for individuals with clinically localized disease and an otherwise long life expectancy who undergo either immediate or delayed treatment, or no treatment. This article describes the available evidence regarding treatment outcomes in men with low-risk prostate cancer and presents the case for immediate active treatment.

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Keith D. Eaton and Renato G. Martins

, including docetaxel, 3 pemetrexed, 4 and erlotinib. 5 Docetaxel Maintenance Docetaxel was the first agent approved for the second-line treatment of NSCLC. Fidias et al. 15 investigated whether immediate treatment with docetaxel

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Surveillance Monitoring More Stringent in Updated NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer Active surveillance or immediate treatment? The question that many men with prostate cancer and their clinicians struggle with continues to be a focus in the updated NCCN

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Andrew D. Zelenetz, Leo I. Gordon, William G. Wierda, Jeremy S. Abramson, Ranjana H. Advani, C. Babis Andreadis, Nancy Bartlett, Naresh Bellam, John C. Byrd, Myron S. Czuczman, Luis E. Fayad, Richard I. Fisher, Martha J. Glenn, Nancy Lee Harris, Richard T. Hoppe, Steven M. Horwitz, Christopher R. Kelsey, Youn H. Kim, Susan Krivacic, Ann S. LaCasce, Auayporn Nademanee, Pierluigi Porcu, Oliver Press, Rachel Rabinovitch, Nishitha Reddy, Erin Reid, Lubomir Sokol, Lode J. Swinnen, Christina Tsien, Julie M. Vose, Joachim Yahalom, Nadeem Zafar, Mary Dwyer and Hema Sundar

xerostomia, or patient refusal) who did not receive immediate treatment had comparable outcomes to patients who were treated with RT. 33 Sequential combination treatment with RT and chemotherapy has also been evaluated in patients with early-stage FL. In a

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Robert J. Morgan Jr, Ronald D. Alvarez, Deborah K. Armstrong, Robert A. Burger, Lee-may Chen, Larry Copeland, Marta Ann Crispens, David M. Gershenson, Heidi J. Gray, Ardeshir Hakam, Laura J. Havrilesky, Carolyn Johnston, Shashikant Lele, Lainie Martin, Ursula A. Matulonis, David M. O’Malley, Richard T. Penson, Matthew A. Powell, Steven W. Remmenga, Paul Sabbatini, Joseph T. Santoso, Julian C. Schink, Nelson Teng, Theresa L. Werner, Mary A. Dwyer and Miranda Hughes

biochemical evidence of relapse (ie, with increased CA-125 levels but without radiographic and/or clinical evidence of relapse), treatment options include delaying treatment until clinical evidence of relapse (category 2A) or providing immediate treatment

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Mark D. Tyson and Sam S. Chang

CT may be more appropriate in the setting of acute neurologic decompensation requiring immediate treatment. 34 PET Scan and Molecular Markers There is insufficient evidence to support the use of molecular markers, such as ki-67, p53, and

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Ayal A. Aizer, Jonathan J. Paly, Anthony L. Zietman, Paul L. Nguyen, Clair J. Beard, Sandhya K. Rao, Irving D. Kaplan, Andrzej Niemierko, Michelle S. Hirsch, Chin-Lee Wu, Aria F. Olumi, M. Dror Michaelson, Anthony V. D’Amico and Jason A. Efstathiou

active surveillance to be a standard option for all men with very-low-risk prostate cancer, and the only option for men with very-low-risk prostate cancer and an expected survival of less than 20 years. Under an active surveillance regimen, immediate

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Edward E. Partridge, Nadeem Abu-Rustum, Anna Giuliano, Stewart Massad, Joan McClure, Mary Dwyer and Miranda Hughes

women aged 21 to 24 years with HSIL, colposcopy is recommended but immediate treatment is not recommended. CIN 1 should not be treated in any age group unless persistent for 2 years. Observation is recommended for CIN 2. Young women aged 21 to 24 years

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James L. Mohler, Andrew J. Armstrong, Robert R. Bahnson, Barry Boston, J. Erik Busby, Anthony Victor D’Amico, James A. Eastham, Charles A. Enke, Thomas Farrington, Celestia S. Higano, Eric Mark Horwitz, Philip W. Kantoff, Mark H. Kawachi, Michael Kuettel, Richard J. Lee, Gary R. MacVicar, Arnold W. Malcolm, David Miller, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Julio M. Pow-Sang, Mack Roach III, Eric Rohren, Stan Rosenfeld, Sandy Srinivas, Seth A. Strope, Jonathan Tward, Przemyslaw Twardowski, Patrick C. Walsh, Maria Ho and Dorothy A. Shead

alternative to immediate treatment with radical prostatectomy or radiation for slow-growing tumors. For patients with high-risk localized tumors or locally advanced disease, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has

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Kenneth C. Anderson, Melissa Alsina, William Bensinger, J. Sybil Biermann, Adam D. Cohen, Steven Devine, Benjamin Djulbegovic, Edward A. Faber Jr, Christine Gasparetto, Francisco Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Carol Ann Huff, Adetola Kassim, Amrita Y. Krishnan, Bruno C. Medeiros, Ruby Meredith, Noopur Raje, Jeffrey Schriber, Seema Singhal, George Somlo, Keith Stockerl-Goldstein, Steven P. Treon, Guido Tricot, Donna M. Weber, Joachim Yahalom, Furhan Yunus, Rashmi Kumar and Dorothy A. Shead

them (see WMLPL-1, on page 1212). The goal of therapy for WM/LPL is to provide symptomatic relief and reduce the risk of organ damage. Not all patients with WM/LPL require immediate treatment. The indicative symptoms for treatment include