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Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum and Yukio Sonoda

This article describes the surgical and pathologic findings of fertility-sparing radical trachelectomy using a standardized surgical technique, and reports the rate of posttrachelectomy outcomes. The authors analyzed a prospectively maintained database of all patients with FIGO stage IA1–IB1 cervical cancer admitted to the operating room for planned fertility-sparing radical abdominal trachelectomy. Sentinel node mapping was performed through cervical injection. Between November 2001 and May 2010, 98 consecutive patients with FIGO stage IA1–IB1 cervical cancer and a median age of 32 years (range, 6–45 years) underwent a fertility-sparing radical trachelectomy. The most common histology was adenocarcinoma in 54 patients (55%) and squamous carcinoma in 42 (43%). Lymph-vascular invasion was seen in 38 patients (39%). FIGO stages included IA1 (with lymph-vascular invasion) in 10 patients (10%), IA2 in 9 (9%), and IB1 in 79 (81%). Only 15 (15%) needed immediate completion radical hysterectomy because of intraoperative findings. Median number of nodes evaluated was 22 (range, 3–54), and 16 (16%) patients had positive pelvic nodes on final pathology. Final trachelectomy pathology showed no residual disease in 44 (45%) cases, dysplasia in 5 (5%), and adenocarcinoma in situ in 3 (3%). Overall, 27 (27%) patients needed hysterectomy or adjuvant pelvic radiation postoperatively. One (1%) documented recurrence was fatal at the time of this report. Cervical adenocarcinoma and lymph-vascular invasion are common features of patients selected for radical trachelectomy. Most patients can undergo the operation successfully with many having no residual invasive disease; however, nearly 27% of all selected cases will require hysterectomy or postoperative chemoradiation for oncologic reasons. Investigation into alternative fertility-sparing adjuvant therapy in patients with node-positive disease is needed.

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Heidi J. Gray

Cervical cancer is the third most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States but the leading gynecologic cancer worldwide. Most patients will present with clinical early-stage disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] stage IA1–IB). These patients are a clinically heterogeneous group, and primary treatment can be either surgery or radiotherapy. Standard surgery is either radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy (stage IA2–IB2) or simple hysterectomy for microinvasive disease (stage IA1). Interest has been increasing in using conservative fertility-sparing surgery through radical trachelectomy as an option for select patients with early-stage disease who want future fertility. Primary radiotherapy is delivered as a combination of external-beam teletherapy and brachytherapy. It is given with concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy, based on 5 large randomized controlled trials that showed significant improvement in overall survival with the addition of chemotherapy. Using either radical surgery or radiation therapy in stage IB disease yields 5-year survival rates of 87% to 92%. The addition of postoperative adjuvant radiation with concurrent chemotherapy is recommended in patients with high- or intermediate-risk disease after radical hysterectomy to reduce risk for recurrence and improve progression-free survival. In select patients with stage IB2 disease with bulky tumors undergoing primary chemoradiation, adjuvant hysterectomy may provide benefit after treatment.

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Angela Jain, Paula D. Ryan, and Michael V. Seiden

guidelines recommend a specific treatment regimen for mOC that differs from that for EOCs. For select young patients with unilateral ovarian masses, fertility-sparing surgery can be considered, including unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and uterus

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Robert J. Morgan Jr, Deborah K. Armstrong, Ronald D. Alvarez, Jamie N. Bakkum-Gamez, Kian Behbakht, Lee-may Chen, Larry Copeland, Marta Ann Crispens, Maria DeRosa, Oliver Dorigo, David M. Gershenson, Heidi J. Gray, Ardeshir Hakam, Laura J. Havrilesky, Carolyn Johnston, Shashikant Lele, Lainie Martin, Ursula A. Matulonis, David M. O'Malley, Richard T. Penson, Sanja Percac-Lima, Mario Pineda, Steven C. Plaxe, Matthew A. Powell, Elena Ratner, Steven W. Remmenga, Peter G. Rose, Paul Sabbatini, Joseph T. Santoso, Theresa L. Werner, Jennifer Burns, and Miranda Hughes

patients with other LCOHs present at an early stage. Some of the tumors may be confined to one ovary. Thus, some of the younger patients are candidates for fertility-sparing surgery, which may be performed laparoscopically (see “Principles of Surgery” in

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Deborah K. Armstrong, Ronald D. Alvarez, Jamie N. Bakkum-Gamez, Lisa Barroilhet, Kian Behbakht, Andrew Berchuck, Lee-may Chen, Mihaela Cristea, Maria DeRosa, Eric L. Eisenhauer, David M. Gershenson, Heidi J. Gray, Rachel Grisham, Ardeshir Hakam, Angela Jain, Amer Karam, Gottfried E. Konecny, Charles A. Leath III, Joyce Liu, Haider Mahdi, Lainie Martin, Daniela Matei, Michael McHale, Karen McLean, David S. Miller, David M. O’Malley, Sanja Percac-Lima, Elena Ratner, Steven W. Remmenga, Roberto Vargas, Theresa L. Werner, Emese Zsiros, Jennifer L. Burns, and Anita M. Engh

retain fertility options should be referred to a reproductive endocrinologist for preoperative evaluation and consultation. Large retrospective studies and meta-analyses have found that for stage I epithelial ovarian cancer, fertility-sparing surgery did

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Wui-Jin Koh, Benjamin E. Greer, Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum, Sachin M. Apte, Susana M. Campos, John Chan, Kathleen R. Cho, David Cohn, Marta Ann Crispens, Nefertiti DuPont, Patricia J. Eifel, David K. Gaffney, Robert L. Giuntoli II, Ernest Han, Warner K. Huh, John R. Lurain III, Lainie Martin, Mark A. Morgan, David Mutch, Steven W. Remmenga, R. Kevin Reynolds, William Small Jr, Nelson Teng, Todd Tillmanns, Fidel A. Valea, Nicole R. McMillian, and Miranda Hughes

-risk patients (eg, every 6 months). Annual cervical/vaginal cytology tests can be considered as indicated for detection of lower genital tract dysplasia (eg, for those who have had fertility-sparing surgery). Some clinicians have suggested that rigorous

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Wui-Jin Koh, Benjamin E. Greer, Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum, Sachin M. Apte, Susana M. Campos, Kathleen R. Cho, Christina Chu, David Cohn, Marta Ann Crispens, Oliver Dorigo, Patricia J. Eifel, Christine M. Fisher, Peter Frederick, David K. Gaffney, Ernest Han, Warner K. Huh, John R. Lurain III, David Mutch, Amanda Nickles Fader, Steven W. Remmenga, R. Kevin Reynolds, Nelson Teng, Todd Tillmanns, Fidel A. Valea, Catheryn M. Yashar, Nicole R. McMillian, and Jillian L. Scavone

: the first step of fertility preservation in young women with cervical cancer (review) . Oncol Rep 2013 ; 30 : 2545 – 2554 . 53. Raju SK Papadopoulos AJ Montalto SA . Fertility-sparing surgery for early cervical cancer-approach to less

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Wui-Jin Koh, Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum, Sarah Bean, Kristin Bradley, Susana M. Campos, Kathleen R. Cho, Hye Sook Chon, Christina Chu, Rachel Clark, David Cohn, Marta Ann Crispens, Shari Damast, Oliver Dorigo, Patricia J. Eifel, Christine M. Fisher, Peter Frederick, David K. Gaffney, Ernest Han, Warner K. Huh, John R. Lurain III, Andrea Mariani, David Mutch, Christa Nagel, Larissa Nekhlyudov, Amanda Nickles Fader, Steven W. Remmenga, R. Kevin Reynolds, Todd Tillmanns, Stefanie Ueda, Emily Wyse, Catheryn M. Yashar, Nicole R. McMillian, and Jillian L. Scavone

“Primary Treatment (Fertility Sparing)” on page 66]. Fertility-sparing surgery is generally not recommended for patients with small cell neuroendocrine tumors, gastric type adenocarcinoma, or adenoma malignum (minimal deviation adenocarcinoma) because of

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Robert J. Morgan Jr., Ronald D. Alvarez, Deborah K. Armstrong, Barry Boston, Robert A. Burger, Lee-may Chen, Larry Copeland, Marta Ann Crispens, David Gershenson, Heidi J. Gray, Perry W. Grigsby, Ardeshir Hakam, Laura J. Havrilesky, Carolyn Johnston, Shashikant Lele, Ursula A. Matulonis, David M. O'Malley, Richard T. Penson, Steven W. Remmenga, Paul Sabbatini, Russell J. Schilder, Julian C. Schink, Nelson Teng, and Theresa L. Werner

-oophorectomy (preserving the uterus and contralateral ovary) when comprehensive staging is performed. 39 , 40 If the patient does not desire fertility-sparing surgery, standard ovarian cancer debulking surgery is recommended, accompanied by comprehensive staging. For

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Kari E. Hacker, Shitanshu Uppal, and Carolyn Johnston

, 19 Recurrences are more common after fertility-sparing surgery. 7 mBOTs are more frequently early stage than are sBOTs, with more than 90% of contemporary cases diagnosed at stage I; survival is close to 100%. 3 , 20 It is important to note that