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Amelia B. Zelnak and Ruth M. O'Regan

Approximately two-thirds of breast cancers express either the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), or both, and this expression is predictive of benefit from endocrine therapies. 1 The use of available endocrine agents has markedly

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William J. Gradishar

New Approaches to Endocrine Therapy Optimizing the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)–positive breast cancer depends on overcoming resistance to endocrine agents. This tall effort has met with some success with the availability of targeted

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Elizabeth J. Cathcart-Rake and Kathryn J. Ruddy

permit switching from tamoxifen to AI, but allow providers to use clinical judgment when choosing among a variety of options for adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women, including the following: AI for 5 to 10 years; AI for 2 to 3 years

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Robert W. Carlson, Clifford A. Hudis, and Kathy I. Pritchard

2005 ; 365 : 60 – 62 . 16. Thürlimann BJ Keshaviah A Mouridsen H . BIG 1–98: randomized double-blind phase III study to evaluate letrozole (L) vs. tamoxifen (T) as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with receptor

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Ingrid A. Mayer

Endocrine therapies remain the standard of care for the treatment of advanced hormone-sensitive breast cancer, but on the horizon are novel strategies that may help overcome the resistance these tumors acquire, according to Ingrid Mayer, MD, MSCI

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Erin Currin, Lanell M. Peterson, Erin K. Schubert, Jeanne M. Link, Kenneth A. Krohn, Robert B. Livingston, David A. Mankoff, and Hannah M. Linden

Background Changes in estrogen receptor (ER) expression over the course of therapy may affect response to endocrine therapy. However, measuring temporal changes in ER expression requires serial biopsies, which are impractical and poorly

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Janice S. Kwon, Gary Pansegrau, Melica Nourmoussavi, Geoffrey L. Hammond, and Mark S. Carey

Background Recent evidence suggests that extending endocrine therapy for another 5 years after the initial 5 years of tamoxifen is beneficial for premenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)–positive breast cancer. In the ATLAS (Adjuvant

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D. Craig Allred, Robert W. Carlson, Donald A. Berry, Harold J. Burstein, Stephen B. Edge, Lori J. Goldstein, Allen Gown, M. Elizabeth Hammond, James Dirk Iglehart, Susan Moench, Lori J. Pierce, Peter Ravdin, Stuart J. Schnitt, and Antonio C. Wolff

. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in the prediction of response of breast cancer to endocrine therapy . Cancer 1980 ; 46 ( 12 Suppl ): 2838 – 2841 . 4 Osborne CK Yochmowitz MG Knight WA III McGuire WL . The value of estrogen and

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Azeez Farooki

noted. Table 1 The Dose and Frequency of Administration of Zoledronic Acid and Denosumab for Treating Osteoporosis, Preventing Bone Loss From Endocrine Therapies, and Preventing Skeletal-Related Events in Patients With Cancer

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Traci LeMasters, S. Suresh Madhavan, Usha Sambamoorthi, Hannah W. Hazard-Jenkins, Kimberly M. Kelly, and Dustin Long

) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for patients aged ≥70 years with stage I, estrogen receptor (ER)–positive breast cancer and that they should receive adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) based on the CALGB C9343 trial findings. 2 , 10 , 11 The second