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Stacy Loeb and William J. Catalona

Active monitoring strategies recently have received attention as possible treatment options for men with low-risk prostate cancer who have a life expectancy of more than 10 years. However, no current criteria sufficiently predict outcomes for individuals with clinically localized disease and an otherwise long life expectancy who undergo either immediate or delayed treatment, or no treatment. This article describes the available evidence regarding treatment outcomes in men with low-risk prostate cancer and presents the case for immediate active treatment.

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Joseph M. Herman

to either limit (controlled breathing) or actively monitor tumor motion (tracking) in real-time. Together, these enhancements have allowed for further dose escalation or hypofractionation of radiation using stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) or

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James L. Mohler, Andrew J. Armstrong, Robert R. Bahnson, Anthony Victor D'Amico, Brian J. Davis, James A. Eastham, Charles A. Enke, Thomas A. Farrington, Celestia S. Higano, Eric M. Horwitz, Michael Hurwitz, Christopher J. Kane, Mark H. Kawachi, Michael Kuettel, Richard J. Lee, Joshua J. Meeks, David F. Penson, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Julio M. Pow-Sang, David Raben, Sylvia Richey, Mack Roach III, Stan Rosenfeld, Edward Schaeffer, Ted A. Skolarus, Eric J. Small, Guru Sonpavde, Sandy Srinivas, Seth A. Strope, Jonathan Tward, Dorothy A. Shead and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

figures. Risk Stratification Management approaches for locoregional prostate cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, active surveillance (actively monitoring disease, with curative-intent intervention if cancer progresses), observation (monitoring

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Brandon R. Mason, James A. Eastham, Brian J. Davis, Lance A. Mynderse, Thomas J. Pugh, Richard J. Lee and Joseph E. Ippolito

PSA level increases and systematic TRUS biopsy results remain negative. 15 Role of mpMRI in Active Surveillance Active surveillance involves the active monitoring of men with seemingly indolent PCa with the goal of initiating therapy if tumor

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James L. Mohler, Philip W. Kantoff, Andrew J. Armstrong, Robert R. Bahnson, Michael Cohen, Anthony Victor D’Amico, James A. Eastham, Charles A. Enke, Thomas A. Farrington, Celestia S. Higano, Eric Mark Horwitz, Christopher J. Kane, Mark H. Kawachi, Michael Kuettel, Timothy M. Kuzel, Richard J. Lee, Arnold W. Malcolm, David Miller, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Julio M. Pow-Sang, David Raben, Sylvia Richey, Mack Roach III, Eric Rohren, Stan Rosenfeld, Edward Schaeffer, Eric J. Small, Guru Sonpavde, Sandy Srinivas, Cy Stein, Seth A. Strope, Jonathan Tward, Dorothy A. Shead and Maria Ho

to as watchful waiting, expectant management , or deferred treatment ) involves actively monitoring the course of the disease with the expectation to intervene if the cancer progresses. Unlike observation, active surveillance is mainly applicable to

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Erin Reid, Gita Suneja, Richard F. Ambinder, Kevin Ard, Robert Baiocchi, Stefan K. Barta, Evie Carchman, Adam Cohen, Neel Gupta, Kimberly L. Johung, Ann Klopp, Ann S. LaCasce, Chi Lin, Oxana V. Makarova-Rusher, Amitkumar Mehta, Manoj P. Menon, David Morgan, Nitya Nathwani, Ariela Noy, Frank Palella, Lee Ratner, Stacey Rizza, Michelle A. Rudek, Jeff Taylor, Benjamin Tomlinson, Chia-Ching J. Wang, Mary A. Dwyer and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

ablative treatment with active monitoring in PLWH with high-grade AIN. The primary outcome measure is time to development of anal cancer, and the study is estimated to be completed in 2022 ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02135419). Workup for Anal

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James Mohler, Robert R. Bahnson, Barry Boston, J. Erik Busby, Anthony D'Amico, James A. Eastham, Charles A. Enke, Daniel George, Eric Mark Horwitz, Robert P. Huben, Philip Kantoff, Mark Kawachi, Michael Kuettel, Paul H. Lange, Gary MacVicar, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Julio M. Pow-Sang, Mack Roach III, Eric Rohren, Bruce J. Roth, Dennis C. Shrieve, Matthew R. Smith, Sandy Srinivas, Przemyslaw Twardowski and Patrick C. Walsh

waiting, expectant management, or deferred treatment) involves actively monitoring the course of the disease with the expectation to intervene if the cancer progresses. The high prevalence of prostate cancer on autopsy of the prostate, 30 high frequency