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Peter L. Greenberg, Cynthia K. Rigsby, Richard M. Stone, H. Joachim Deeg, Steven D. Gore, Michael M. Millenson, Stephen D. Nimer, Margaret R. O'Donnell, Paul J. Shami and Rashmi Kumar

1997 ; 89 : 739 – 761 . 6 Malcovati L . Impact of transfusion dependency and secondary iron overload on the survival of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes . Leuk Res 2007 ; 31 ( Suppl 3 ): S2 – 6 . 7 Andrews NC . Iron

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7 7 Suppl_9 Suppl_9 NCCN Task Force: Transfusion and Iron Overload in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes Greenberg Peter L. MD Rigsby Cynthia K. MD Stone Richard M. MD Deeg H. Joachim MD Gore Steven D. MD

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Ramon Mohanlal and Lan Huang

Introduction: Cancer patients (pts) with chronic anemia require long-term blood transfusions causing tissue iron (Fe) overload in the heart, liver, endocrine organs leading to morbidity and shortened life expectancy. Fe overload is usually treated

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Jennifer M. Hinkel, Edward C. Li and Stephen L. Sherman

(ESAs), blood transfusions, and iron supplementation to maintain hemoglobin levels in patients with cancer. Each of these interventions has complexities and, in some cases, controversies. Moreover, anemia and the interventions used to counter it can have

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George M. Rodgers III, Pamela Sue Becker, Morey Blinder, David Cella, Asher Chanan-Khan, Charles Cleeland, Peter F. Coccia, Benjamin Djulbegovic, Jeffrey A. Gilreath, Eric H. Kraut, Ursula A. Matulonis, Michael M. Millenson, Denise Reinke, Joseph Rosenthal, Rowena N. Schwartz, Gerald Soff, Richard S. Stein, Gordana Vlahovic and Alva B. Weir III

is prevalent in 30% to 90% of patients with cancer. 1 Anemia can be corrected through treating the underlying cause or providing supportive care through either transfusion with packed red blood cells (PRBC) or administration of erythropoiesis

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John Glaspy

for red blood cell transfusions, and it is logical to avoid or minimize it, if possible, through addressing ongoing bleeding, reducing unnecessary blood loss in phlebotomy, and evaluating and treating nutritional deficiencies. Although many patients

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Peter L. Greenberg

Davis B . Long-term trial of deferiprone in 51-transfusion-dependent iron overloaded patients . Blood 1998 ; 91 : 295 – 300 . 30. Cohen AR Galanello R Piga A . Safety and effectiveness of long-term therapy with the oral iron chelator

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David P. Steensma

require red blood cell (RBC) transfusions at some point during the course of their illness. Patients with MDS who require RBC transfusions experience worse outcomes than transfusion-independent patients, even when the cohorts are matched for other known

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Jeffrey Crawford and George M. Rodgers

transfusion, or IV iron. 4 These last 2 options are especially important for patients who are not candidates for ESAs—those not receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy and those with curable disease. Table 1 Management of Chemotherapy

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Daniel A. Pollyea, Dale Bixby, Alexander Perl, Vijaya Raj Bhatt, Jessica K. Altman, Frederick R. Appelbaum, Marcos de Lima, Amir T. Fathi, James M. Foran, Ivana Gojo, Aric C. Hall, Meagan Jacoby, Jeffrey Lancet, Gabriel Mannis, Guido Marcucci, Michael G. Martin, Alice Mims, Jadee Neff, Reza Nejati, Rebecca Olin, Mary-Elizabeth Percival, Thomas Prebet, Amanda Przespolewski, Dinesh Rao, Farhad Ravandi-Kashani, Paul J. Shami, Richard M. Stone, Stephen A. Strickland, Kendra Sweet, Pankit Vachhani, Matthew Wieduwilt, Kristina M. Gregory, Ndiya Ogba and Martin S. Tallman

recommends continuing treatment regardless of cytopenias until a response assessment is made, 47 with aggressive transfusion support and supportive care as needed. The panel also recommends withholding growth factors until after the first cycle response