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Mark L. Gonzalgo and H. Ballentine Carter

detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men . J Urol 1994 ; 151 : 1283 – 1290 . 3. Zhu H Roehl KA Antenor JA . Biopsy of men with PSA level of 2.6 to 4.0 ng/mL associated with favorable pathologic

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Christopher J. Magnani, Kevin Li, Tina Seto, Kathryn M. McDonald, Douglas W. Blayney, James D. Brooks, and Tina Hernandez-Boussard

during the patient’s lifetime. Autopsy studies detect prostate cancer in 30% of men by age 55 years and 60% of men by age 80 years. 3 Widespread implementation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has led to a significant increase in diagnosis

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Timothy J. Wilt and Philipp Dahm

Few health issues have produced more controversy than prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer. Screening and early treatment for screen-detected disease may provide large personal and public health benefits. Prostate cancer

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William J. Catalona and Stacy Loeb

T he prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test is the foundation for modern prostate cancer (CaP) screening. Initially it was used in forensic medicine. The subsequent discovery that it could be measured in serum, and that serum levels increase

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Yoshio Naya and Koji Okihara

identify men at high risk of prostate cancer when PSA levels are 2.51 to 4 ng/ml and digital rectal examination is not suspicious for prostate cancer: an alternative model . Urology 1999 ; 54 : 220 – 224 . 10 Djavan B Zlotta A Kratzik C . PSA

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Brandon A. Mahal, Ming-Hui Chen, Andrew A. Renshaw, Marian J. Loffredo, Philip W. Kantoff, and Anthony V. D'Amico

deprivation therapy (ADT) are often curative treatments for localized disease, 2 – 5 approximately one-quarter of patients will experience recurrence within 10 years after curative-intent therapy. 6 , 7 An increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level

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Matthew E. Nielsen, Bruce J. Trock, and Patrick C. Walsh

D espite the stage migration and concomitant improvements in prostate cancer–specific survival (PCSS) associated with widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, approximately 1 in 3 men with clinically localized disease will develop a

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Vinayak Muralidhar, Paul L. Nguyen, Brandon A. Mahal, David D. Yang, Kent W. Mouw, Brent S. Rose, Clair J. Beard, Jason A. Efstathiou, Neil E. Martin, Martin T. King, and Peter F. Orio III

Background Initial treatment of prostate cancer is driven by clinical risk factors, including T stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, in addition to assessment of regional nodal or distant spread. 1 In men with

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Celestia S. Higano

conferred the same toxicity as orchiectomy. After the test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was approved by the FDA in 1986, a new population of men was identified who had no evidence of metastatic disease other than an increasing PSA level after primary

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Jeffrey M. Martin, Tianyu Li, Matthew E. Johnson, Colin T. Murphy, Alan G. Howald, Marc C. Smaldone, Alexander Kutikov, David Y.T. Chen, Rosalia Viterbo, Richard E. Greenberg, Robert G. Uzzo, and Eric M. Horwitz

pathologic assessment of the surgical specimen (T3 disease [extracapsular extension or seminal vesicle invasion], a positive margin, or Gleason score 8–10). A detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was allowed in the adjuvant definition as long as