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Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: Controversies in Diagnosis and Treatment

Bonnie S. Glisson and Cesar A. Moran

Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is one of the most challenging diseases to diagnose in the practice of diagnostic surgical pathology, and is consequently challenging for oncologists to determine the best treatment. The knowledge of a

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Targeting BRAF Mutations in High-Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Colon

Jarred Burkart, Dwight Owen, Manisha H. Shah, Sherif R. Z. Abdel-Misih, Sameek Roychowdhury, Robert Wesolowski, Sigurdis Haraldsdottir, Julie W. Reeser, Eric Samorodnitsky, Amy Smith, and Bhavana Konda

site of origin, stage, and biological features, influence treatment decisions. 2 Metastatic, high-grade, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are typically aggressive tumors characterized by a Ki-67 level of >20% and a mitotic index

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Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Carcinomas: Progress and Pitfalls

Gregory P. Kalemkerian

tumors constitute approximately 20% of all lung cancers, with SCLC accounting for 15%, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) 2% to 3%, and carcinoid tumors 1% to 2%. Pulmonary neuroendocrine cancers (NECs) are generally categorized by grade: high

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Successful Imatinib Therapy for Neuroendocrine Carcinoma With Activating KIT Mutation: A Case Study

James Perkins, Patrick Boland, Steven J. Cohen, Anthony J. Olszanski, Yan Zhou, Paul Engstrom, and Igor Astsaturov

diarrhea. A CT scan revealed an enlarged liver extending to the pelvis with numerous hypodense metastatic foci without evidence of a primary tumor ( Figure 1A ). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the liver demonstrated neuroendocrine carcinoma with

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Efficacy and Toxicity Analysis of mFOLFIRINOX in High-Grade Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

Michele Borghesani, Anna Reni, Eleonora Lauricella, Alice Rossi, Viola Moscarda, Elena Trevisani, Irene Torresan, Taymeyah Al-Toubah, Elisabetta Filoni, Claudio Luchini, Riccardo De Robertis, Luca Landoni, Aldo Scarpa, Camillo Porta, Michele Milella, Jonathan Strosberg, Mauro Cives, and Sara Cingarlini

-differentiated grade 3 (G3) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). 2 Gastroenteropancreatic NECs (GEP-NECs) may contain a non-neuroendocrine component, including adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma, or squamous

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Role of Interventional Radiology in the Treatment of Patients with Neuroendocrine Metastases in the Liver

Larry K. Kvols, Kiran K. Turaga, Jonathan Strosberg, and Junsung Choi

Y-microspheres: early results in 148 patients . Am J Clin Oncol 2008 ; 31 : 271 – 279 . 48 Murthy R Kamat P Nunez R . Yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolotherapy of hepatic metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas after hepatic arterial

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Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors: What (Little) Do We Know?

Lin-Chi Chen, William D. Travis, and Lee M. Krug

proposed criteria for large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. An ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric study of 35 cases . Am J Surg Pathol 1991 ; 15 : 529 – 553 . 4. Travis WD Brambilla E Muller-Hermelink HK . Pathology and

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Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer: Subtypes, Biology, and Clinical Outcomes

Rahul Aggarwal, Tian Zhang, Eric J. Small, and Andrew J. Armstrong

tumors are used to evaluate potential novel molecular biomarkers of neuroendocrine differentiation. Figure 2 Prostate cancer histology transforming from adenocarcinoma to neuroendocrine carcinoma over the course of treatment. Initial prostate

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Treatment Options for Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Samuel W. Beenken and Marshall M. Urist

. An analysis of prognostic factors in cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma . Laryngoscope 1992 ; 102 : 244 – 249 . 6 Allen PJ Zhang ZF Coit DG . Surgical management of Merkel cell carcinoma . Ann Surg 1999 ; 229 : 97 – 105 . 7

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Tumor Mutational Burden and Mismatch Repair Deficiency Discordance as a Mechanism of Immunotherapy Resistance

Agata A. Bielska, Walid K. Chatila, Henry Walch, Nikolaus Schultz, Zsofia K. Stadler, Jinru Shia, Diane Reidy-Lagunes, and Rona Yaeger

differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (60% of tumor cells staining for the proliferation marker Ki-67). Immunohistochemistry confirmed the loss of MLH1 and PMS2 in the neuroendocrine carcinoma ( Figure 1A ). Surprisingly, despite the patient’s Lynch syndrome