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Gary R. Hudes, Michael A. Carducci, Toni K. Choueiri, Peg Esper, Eric Jonasch, Rashmi Kumar, Kim A. Margolin, M. Dror Michaelson, Robert J. Motzer, Roberto Pili, Susan Roethke, and Sandy Srinivas

significant challenge for practicing oncologists. The biggest challenges for physicians treating RCC are in selecting from a growing list of agents the optimal treatment for a given patient, and how to effectively manage toxicities. The molecular targeted

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James Brugarolas

therapies, including immunotherapies (interleukin-2 and nivolumab) and molecularly targeted therapies, which comprise angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, and, with a characteristic target spectrum, the recently

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Harry T. Whelan

, compared with those with methylated MGMT. Therefore, overexpression of MGMT appears to be adversely associated with survival. 4 In addition to overexpression of MGMT, other molecular targets/prognostic factors for HGG are listed in Table 1 . “Although

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Grant A. McArthur

– 827 . 35. Capdeville R Buchdunger E Zimmermann J Matter A . Glivec (STI571, imatinib), a rationally developed, targeted anticancer drug . Nat Rev Drug Discov 2002 ; 1 : 493 – 502 . 36. Rubin BP Schuetze SM Eary JF . Molecular

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Lainie Martin and Russell J. Schilder

Although significant improvements in standard therapy for ovarian carcinoma have been made over the past decade, current treatment is limited by the development of resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy, and most women ultimately die of the disease. New knowledge of the biology of ovarian cancer has led to the identification of potential molecular targets that are differentially expressed in normal cells versus cancer cells, and advances in pharmacology have led to the development of novel agents that work differently from traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy by exploiting these targets. Many of these agents are being evaluated in clinical trials. This article discusses molecular targets that are important in ovarian carcinoma, including angiogenesis, tyrosine kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and phosphatidylinositol-like kinases such as mammalian target of rapamycin, and the proteosome. This article reviews novel non-cytotoxic agents that target these pathways and are currently being evaluated in ovarian carcinoma treatment.

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Tayyaba Hasan

photodynamic effect. In this article, Dr. Hasan explores the preclinical research findings on molecular targets that serve as the clinical foundation for moving PDT forward into the future, essentially in combination treatment. First, the molecular response

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R. Michael Tuttle and R. Leboeuf

. Lancet Oncol 2007 ; 8 : 148 – 156 . 8. Milano A Chiofalo MG Basile M . New molecular targeted therapies in thyroid cancer . Anticancer Drugs 2006 ; 17 : 869 – 879 . 9. Santini F Bottici V Elisei R . Cytotoxic effects of

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John A. Thompson

stage IV M1b or M1c disease, “the differences go away,” he noted. Molecularly Targeted Therapy With half of patients with metastatic melanoma harboring an activating mutation in BRAF , therapies targeting this mutation—vemurafenib and dabrafenib

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Farhad Ravandi and Jeffrey L. Jorgensen

cells, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) with a sensitivity as low as 1 in 10 6 molecular targets. 6 The RQ-PCR assay can be applied to detect recurring fusion transcripts, such as PML-RARa, Cb-MYH11, and RUNX1-RUNX1T1

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Michael Cecchini, Jeffrey Sklar, and Jill Lacy

benefit, and the use of immunotherapies and molecularly targeted drugs has proven disappointing. Widespread use of genomic analysis to identify actionable mutations in PDAC has been constrained due to challenges with tissue acquisition and the low