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Randall W. Burt, Jamie A. Cannon, Donald S. David, Dayna S. Early, James M. Ford, Francis M. Giardiello, Amy L. Halverson, Stanley R. Hamilton, Heather Hampel, Mohammad K. Ismail, Kory Jasperson, Jason B. Klapman, Audrey J. Lazenby, Patrick M. Lynch, Robert J. Mayer, Reid M. Ness, Dawn Provenzale, M. Sambasiva Rao, Moshe Shike, Gideon Steinbach, Jonathan P. Terdiman, David Weinberg, Mary Dwyer and Deborah Freedman-Cass

) and microsatellite instability . J Natl Cancer Inst 2004 ; 96 : 261 – 268 . 135. Taylor DP Burt RW Williams MS . Population-based family history-specific risks for colorectal cancer: a constellation approach . Gastroenterology 2010

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Al B. Benson III

selection and prognosis: KRAS mutation determination (now extended RAS assessment) before considering anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy; BRAF mutation status as a prognostic tool, and microsatellite instability analysis, particularly

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Wells A. Messersmith

caveats for decisions regarding adjuvant therapy for patients with stage II disease: “Don't use any adjuvant therapy for stage II microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) colon cancer; there are insufficient data to recommend use of multigene assay panels

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Shumei Kato, Vivek Subbiah and Razelle Kurzrock

understanding of the marriage between genomics and immunotherapy has yielded biomarkers such as microsatellite instability and high tumor mutational burden that can predict for dramatic responses to checkpoint inhibitors. Even so, realization of the full

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Paul F. Engstrom

whose tumors express microsatellite instability–high may have a good prognosis and benefit less from 5-FU adjuvant therapy. Gene expression determination from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor samples can profile patients with high risk of

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Alan P. Venook

that the immune system can also be harnessed for therapeutic benefit in the subset of patients with mCRC and microsatellite instability (MSI)–high tumors. “Dramatic advances related to immune checkpoint inhibitors have changed the game,” he said. In the

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Phillip G. Febbo, Marc Ladanyi, Kenneth D. Aldape, Angelo M. De Marzo, M. Elizabeth Hammond, Daniel F. Hayes, A. John Iafrate, R. Kate Kelley, Guido Marcucci, Shuji Ogino, William Pao, Dennis C. Sgroi and Marian L. Birkeland

Instability Defects in mismatch repair (MMR) can be detected using either immunohistochemistry for the absence of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and/or PMS2 protein in tumor tissues, or through a comparative PCR analysis of tumor and normal patient DNA for microsatellite

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Robert W. Carlson, Jonathan K. Larsen, Joan McClure, C. Lyn Fitzgerald, Alan P. Venook, Al B. Benson III and Benjamin O. Anderson

the assessment of microsatellite instability in assessing prognosis and sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in patients younger than 50 years or with stage II disease ( Figure 1 ). However, testing for microsatellite instability is not available

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Carlo C. Maley and Anil K. Rustgi

. Microsatellite instability and hMLH1/hMSH2 expression in Barrett esophagus-associated adenocarcinoma . Cancer 2001 ; 91 : 1451 – 1457 . 32. Gleeson CM Sloan JM McGuigan JA . Barrett's oesophagus: microsatellite analysis provides evidence to support

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Al B. Benson III, Alan P. Venook, Mahmoud M. Al-Hawary, Mustafa A. Arain, Yi-Jen Chen, Kristen K. Ciombor, Stacey A. Cohen, Harry S. Cooper, Dustin A. Deming, Ignacio Garrido-Laguna, Jean L. Grem, Sarah E. Hoffe, Joleen Hubbard, Steven Hunt, Ahmed Kamel, Natalie Kirilcuk, Smitha Krishnamurthi, Wells A. Messersmith, Jeffrey Meyerhardt, Eric D. Miller, Mary F. Mulcahy, Steven Nurkin, Michael J. Overman, Aparna Parikh, Hitendra Patel, Katrina S. Pedersen, Leonard B. Saltz, Charles Schneider, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Elena M. Stoffel, Eden Stotsky-Himelfarb, Christopher G. Willett, Alyse Johnson-Chilla, Kristina M. Gregory and Lisa A. Gurski

individuals who might have Lynch syndrome: (1) immunohistochemical analysis for MMR protein expression, which is often diminished because of mutation; or (2) polymerase chain reaction analysis for microsatellite instability (MSI), which results from MMR