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Jonathan Potack and Steven H. Itzkowitz

DNA tests ( Table 2 ). 26 These tests analyzed a rather complex marker panel of multiple mutations in genes known to be involved in microsatellite-stable CRCs ( APC, TP53, KRAS ), a marker of microsatellite instability ( BAT-26 ), and an assay that

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Al B. Benson III, Alan P. Venook, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Emily Chan, Yi-Jen Chen, Harry S. Cooper, Paul F. Engstrom, Peter C. Enzinger, Moon J. Fenton, Charles S. Fuchs, Jean L. Grem, Steven Hunt, Ahmed Kamel, Lucille A. Leong, Edward Lin, Wells Messersmith, Mary F. Mulcahy, James D. Murphy, Steven Nurkin, Eric Rohren, David P. Ryan, Leonard Saltz, Sunil Sharma, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Elena M. Stoffel, Eden Stotsky-Himelfarb, Christopher G. Willett, Kristina M. Gregory and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

stage II and III colon cancer enrolled in the PETACC-3 trial showed that the BRAF mutation is prognostic for OS in patients with microsatellite instability-low or microsatellite stable tumors (HR, 2.2; 95% CI; 1.4-3.4; P =.0003). 197 Moreover, an

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William J. Gradishar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Jame Abraham, Rebecca Aft, Doreen Agnese, Kimberly H. Allison, Sarah L. Blair, Harold J. Burstein, Chau Dang, Anthony D. Elias, Sharon H. Giordano, Matthew P. Goetz, Lori J. Goldstein, Steven J. Isakoff, Jairam Krishnamurthy, Janice Lyons, P. Kelly Marcom, Jennifer Matro, Ingrid A. Mayer, Meena S. Moran, Joanne Mortimer, Ruth M. O'Regan, Sameer A. Patel, Lori J. Pierce, Hope S. Rugo, Amy Sitapati, Karen Lisa Smith, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, Erica M. Stringer-Reasor, Melinda L. Telli, John H. Ward, Jessica S. Young, Jennifer L. Burns and Rashmi Kumar

or metastatic, microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair deficient solid tumors that have progressed after prior treatment and who have no satisfactory alternative treatment options. 177 – 179 Pembrolizumab has demonstrated antitumor

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Wui-Jin Koh, Benjamin E. Greer, Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum, Sachin M. Apte, Susana M. Campos, John Chan, Kathleen R. Cho, David Cohn, Marta Ann Crispens, Nefertiti DuPont, Patricia J. Eifel, Amanda Nickles Fader, Christine M. Fisher, David K. Gaffney, Suzanne George, Ernest Han, Warner K. Huh, John R. Lurain III, Lainie Martin, David Mutch, Steven W. Remmenga, R. Kevin Reynolds, William Small Jr, Nelson Teng, Todd Tillmanns, Fidel A. Valea, Nicole McMillian and Miranda Hughes

tumor for defective DNA mismatch repair using immunohistochemistry and/or microsatellite instability (MSI) should be considered to identify which patients should undergo mutation testing for Lynch syndrome (see “Lynch Syndrome” in the NCCN Guidelines for

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Timothy Gilligan, Daniel W. Lin, Rahul Aggarwal, David Chism, Nicholas Cost, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Hamid Emamekhoo, Darren R. Feldman, Daniel M. Geynisman, Steven L. Hancock, Chad LaGrange, Ellis G. Levine, Thomas Longo, Will Lowrance, Bradley McGregor, Paul Monk, Joel Picus, Phillip Pierorazio, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Philip Saylor, Kanishka Sircar, David C. Smith, Katherine Tzou, Daniel Vaena, David Vaughn, Kosj Yamoah, Jonathan Yamzon, Alyse Johnson-Chilla, Jennifer Keller and Lenora A. Pluchino

, surgical salvage (if solitary site), and microsatellite instability/mismatch repair (MSI/MMR) testing (if disease progresses after high-dose chemotherapy or third-line therapy). The preferred treatment option for patients who experience a late relapse (>2

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Al B. Benson III, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Emily Chan, Yi-Jen Chen, Michael A. Choti, Harry S. Cooper, Paul F. Engstrom, Peter C. Enzinger, Marwan G. Fakih, Charles S. Fuchs, Jean L. Grem, Steven Hunt, Lucille A. Leong, Edward Lin, Michael G. Martin, Kilian Salerno May, Mary F. Mulcahy, Kate Murphy, Eric Rohren, David P. Ryan, Leonard Saltz, Sunil Sharma, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, William Small Jr, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Alan P. Venook, Christopher G. Willett, Deborah A. Freedman-Cass and Kristina M. Gregory

diminished because of mutation, and analysis for microsatellite instability (MSI), which results from MMR deficiency and is detected as an altered amount of short repeated DNA sequences in tumor tissue caused by the insertion or deletion of repeated units. 13

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R. Michael Tuttle, Douglas W. Ball, David Byrd, Raza A. Dilawari, Gerard M. Doherty, Quan-Yang Duh, Hormoz Ehya, William B. Farrar, Robert I. Haddad, Fouad Kandeel, Richard T. Kloos, Peter Kopp, Dominick M. Lamonica, Thom R. Loree, William M. Lydiatt, Judith C. McCaffrey, John A. Olson Jr., Lee Parks, John A. Ridge, Jatin P. Shah, Steven I. Sherman, Cord Sturgeon, Steven G. Waguespack, Thomas N. Wang and Lori J. Wirth

minisatellite and microsatellite instability in radiation-induced post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid carcinomas . Oncogene 1998 ; 17 : 1983 – 1988 . 24. Kaplan MM . Clinical evaluation and management of solitary thyroid nodules . In: Braverman LE