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Nalan Nese, Ruta Gupta, Matthew H. T. Bui and Mahul B. Amin

Edited by Kerrin G. Robinson

cancer biomarkers: current developments and future implementation . Curr Opin Urol 2007 ; 17 : 341 – 346 . 43 Yoder BJ Skacel M Hedgepeth R . Reflex UroVysion testing of bladder cancer surveillance patients with equivocal or negative urine

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This article summarizes the NCCN clinical practice guidelines for managing esophageal cancer. The guidelines begin with the clinical presentation of the patient to the primary care physician or gastroenterologist and address diagnosis, pathologic staging, surgical management, adjuvant treatment, management of recurrent and metastatic disease, and patient surveillance.

For the most recent version of the guidelines, please visit NCCN.org

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This article summarizes the NCCN clinical practice guidelines for managing rectal cancer. The guidelines begin with the clinical presentation of the patient to the primary care physician or gastroenterologist and address diagnosis, pathologic staging, surgical management, adjuvant treatment, management of recurrent and metastatic disease, and patient surveillance.

For the most recent version of the guidelines, please visit NCCN.org

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Patrick M. Lynch

Individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer or colorectal adenomas have an increased risk for colorectal cancer. When no hereditary syndrome is evident, screening is based on empiric risk estimates. The risk is greatest for individuals with specific inherited cancer-predisposing disorders. When conditions such as familial adenomatous polyposis or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer are diagnosed, specific neoplasm risk estimates can usually be performed based on advances in molecular genetics. These estimates lead to more straightforward and cost-effective approaches to surveillance and management. The National Comprehensive Cancer Center Network (NCCN) and other groups have provided detailed guidelines for evaluating patients based on recognition of clinical syndrome characteristics, followed by appropriate genetic counseling, genetic testing, and optimal surveillance. The NCCN guidelines are used as a frame of reference for this discussion of selected recent advances in human cancer genetics as they apply to clinical practice.

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Kwang-Yu Chang, Jang-Yang Chang, Joseph Chao and Yun Yen

Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide, and one of the most fatal diseases despite modern medical treatment. Because correct staging and surveillance of neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer is mandatory for further treatment planning, choosing a modern imaging system is important. The development of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) has provided alternate means of tumor detection distinct from more conventional methods. This modality has extraordinary performance in detecting locoregional lymph node involvement and distant metastatic disease, and has been introduced as a powerful tool in many guidelines. However, some factors still lead to false-negative or -positive results, raising questions of its accuracy. This article discusses the clinical efficacy of PET in staging and surveillance of neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal cancer, comparing its accuracy with conventional imaging modalities.

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Al B. Benson III, Alan P. Venook, Mahmoud M. Al-Hawary, Lynette Cederquist, Yi-Jen Chen, Kristen K. Ciombor, Stacey Cohen, Harry S. Cooper, Dustin Deming, Paul F. Engstrom, Ignacio Garrido-Laguna, Jean L. Grem, Axel Grothey, Howard S. Hochster, Sarah Hoffe, Steven Hunt, Ahmed Kamel, Natalie Kirilcuk, Smitha Krishnamurthi, Wells A. Messersmith, Jeffrey Meyerhardt, Eric D. Miller, Mary F. Mulcahy, James D. Murphy, Steven Nurkin, Leonard Saltz, Sunil Sharma, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Elena M. Stoffel, Eden Stotsky-Himelfarb, Christopher G. Willett, Evan Wuthrick, Kristina M. Gregory and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

The NCCN Guidelines for Colon Cancer provide recommendations regarding diagnosis, pathologic staging, surgical management, perioperative treatment, surveillance, management of recurrent and metastatic disease, and survivorship. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Colon Cancer Panel discussions for the 2018 update of the guidelines regarding risk stratification and adjuvant treatment for patients with stage III colon cancer, and treatment of BRAF V600E mutation–positive metastatic colorectal cancer with regimens containing vemurafenib.

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An estimated 3,900 new cases of anal canal cancer will occur in 2002, accounting for approximately 1.6% of digestive system cancers in the United States. NCCN clinical practice guidelines for managing anal cancer discuss the complete management of this disease, from clinical presentation through diagnosis, pathologic staging, surgical management, adjuvant treatment, management of recurrent and metastatic disease, and patient surveillance.

For the most recent version of the guidelines, please visit NCCN.org

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Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and women in the United States, and in 2005, an estimated 104,950 new cases of colon cancer will occur. Despite these statistics, mortality from colon cancer has decreased over the past 30 years, possibly because of earlier diagnosis through screening and better treatment modalities. The NCCN guidelines summarize the management of colon cancer, from disease presentation through management of recurrent disease and patient surveillance.

For the most recent version of the guidelines, please visit NCCN.org

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Al B. Benson III, Alan P. Venook, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Emily Chan, Yi-Jen Chen, Harry S. Cooper, Paul F. Engstrom, Peter C. Enzinger, Moon J. Fenton, Charles S. Fuchs, Jean L. Grem, Steven Hunt, Ahmed Kamel, Lucille A. Leong, Edward Lin, Wells Messersmith, Mary F. Mulcahy, James D. Murphy, Steven Nurkin, Eric Rohren, David P. Ryan, Leonard Saltz, Sunil Sharma, David Shibata, John M. Skibber, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, Elena M. Stoffel, Eden Stotsky-Himelfarb, Christopher G. Willett, Kristina M. Gregory and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

The NCCN Guidelines for Colon Cancer address diagnosis, pathologic staging, surgical management, perioperative treatment, posttreatment surveillance, management of recurrent and metastatic disease,and survivorship. This portion of the guidelines focuses on the use of systemic therapy in metastatic disease. The management of metastatic colorectal cancer involves a continuum of care in which patients are exposed sequentially to a variety of active agents, either in combinations or as single agents. Choice of therapy is based on the goals of treatment, the type and timing of prior therapy, the different efficacy and toxicity profiles of the drugs, the mutational status of the tumor, and patient preference.

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Jaffer A. Ajani

emerges regarding surveillance; such as who should undergo surveillance, for how long, and how often? Because prospective data are nonexistent, we can only rely on a handful of retrospective analyses. 5 – 10 More compelling questions are (1) how often