Purpose: KRAS mutations and tumor location have been associated with response to targeted therapy among patients with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) in various trials. This study performed the first population-based examination of associations between KRAS mutations, tumor location, and survival, and assessed factors associated with documented KRAS testing. Methods: Patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the colon/rectum diagnosed from 2010 to 2013 were extracted from SEER data. Analyses of patient characteristics, KRAS testing, and tumor location were conducted using logistic regression. Cox proportional hazards models assessed relationships between KRAS mutations, tumor location, and risk of all-cause death. Results: Of 22,542 patients, 30% received KRAS testing, and 44% of these had mutations. Those tested tended to be younger, married, and metropolitan area residents, and have private insurance or Medicare. Rates of KRAS testing also varied by registry (range, 20%–46%). Patients with right-sided colon cancer (vs left-sided) tended to be older, female, and black; have mucinous, KRAS-mutant tumors; and have a greater risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.22–1.32). KRAS mutations were not associated with greater risk of death in the overall population; however, they were associated with greater risk of death among patients with left-sided colon cancer (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05–1.33). Conclusions: This large population-based study showed that among patients initially diagnosed with stage IV CRC, right-sided colon cancer was associated with greater risk of death compared with left-sided cancer, and KRAS mutations were only associated with risk of death in left-sided colon cancer. An unexpected finding was that among patients with stage IV disease, right-sided cancer was more commonly seen in black patients versus whites. Future studies should further explore these associations and determine the role of biology versus treatment differences. In addition, use of KRAS testing is increasing, but there is wide geographic variation wherein disparities related to insurance coverage and rurality may warrant further study.
Mary E. Charlton, Amanda R. Kahl, Alissa A. Greenbaum, Jordan J. Karlitz, Chi Lin, Charles F. Lynch and Vivien W. Chen
Mei-Chin Hsieh, Lu Zhang, Xiao-Cheng Wu, Mary B. Davidson, Michelle Loch and Vivien W. Chen
Background: Breast cancer subtype is a key determinant in treatment decision-making, and also effects survival outcome. In this population-based study, in-depth analyses were performed to examine the impact that breast cancer subtype and receipt of guideline-concordant adjuvant systemic therapy (AST) have on survival using a population-based cancer registry’s data. Methods: Women aged ≥20 years with microscopically confirmed stage I–III breast cancer diagnosed in 2011 were identified from the Louisiana Tumor Registry. Breast cancer subtypes were categorized based on hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 status. Guideline-concordant treatment was defined using the NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer. Logistic regression was applied to identify factors associated with guideline-concordant AST receipt. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated to compare survival among subtypes by AST receipt status, and a semiparametric additive hazard model was used to verify the factors impacting survival outcome. Results: Of 2,214 eligible patients, most (70.8%) were HR+/HER2– followed by HR–/HER2– (14.4%), and 78.6% received guideline-concordant AST. Compared with patients with the HR+/HER2+ subtype, women with other subtypes were more likely to be guideline-concordant after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables. Women with the HR–/HER2+ or HR–/HER2– subtype had a higher risk of any-cause and breast cancer–specific death than those with the HR+/HER2+ subtype. Those who did not receive AST had an additional adjusted hazard of 0.0191 (P=.0001) in overall survival and 0.0126 (P=.0011) in cause-specific survival compared with those who received AST. Conclusions: Most patients received guideline-concordant AST, except for those with the HR+/HER2+ subtype. Patients receiving guideline-adherent adjuvant therapy had better survival outcomes across all breast cancer subtypes.