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Venkata K. Pokuri, Mihai Merzianu, Shipra Gandhi, Junaid Baqai, Thom R. Loree and Seema Bhat

Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) is an extremely rare dendritic cell tumor with slightly more than 100 cases reported in the English literature. This report discusses a case of localized IDCS involving cervical lymph nodes and provides a literature review of clinicopathologic aspects and treatment outcomes.

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Venkata Pokuri, Norbert Sule, Yousef Soofi, Bo Xu, Khurshid Guru and Saby George

Randomized trials support the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer based on a noted survival advantage, which appeared to be strongly related to downstaging of the cancer to pT0 (complete pathologic response). This report presents a case of an unusual mast cell response along with bladder wall thickening after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, the final cystectomy specimen did not reveal any residual tumor (pT0). The authors hypothesize that neoadjuvant chemotherapy could have caused the diffuse mast cell response, and that this profound inflammatory response can be used as a biomarker of complete response to chemotherapy.

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Venkata K. Pokuri, Houman Nourkeyhani, Bodie Betsy, Laurie Herbst, Marcus Sikorski, Edward Spangenthal, Andrew Fabiano and Saby George

The testosterone surge and disease flare is a feared complication from initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment in advanced prostate adenocarcinoma. It is a common practice to start an average 7-day pretreatment regimen with an antiandrogen agent before initiating GnRH agonist therapy, to circumvent disease flare from testosterone surge. However, this might not be the best strategy and can be harmful, especially in patients at high risk of imminent organ damage from minimal testosterone surge. Surgical castration is a simple and cost-effective method that should be considered in these scenarios. But most patients refuse this procedure because of the permanent and psychologic impact of surgery. Novel GnRH antagonists, such as degarelix, and cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme inhibitors, such as ketoconazole, achieve castrate-equivalent serum testosterone levels much faster than traditional GnRH agonists without the need for coadministration of antiandrogens. This article reports on 3 cases of impending oncologic emergencies in advanced prostate adenocarcinoma treated promptly with degarelix and ketoconazole without any disease flare related to testosterone surge. In the setting of symptomatic hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer, the authors suggest clinical trials using abiraterone, orteronel, and other newer agents that target the CYP17 axis (eg, ketoconazole) for fine-tuning the emergent medical castration methods and avoiding the dangers from the flare phenomenon.