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Anastasia Drobysheva, Laura J. Klesse, Daniel C. Bowers, Veena Rajaram, Dinesh Rakheja, Charles F. Timmons, Jason Wang, Korgun Koral, Lynn Gargan, Erica Ramos, and Jason Y. Park

This report presents a series of 5 pediatric patients with disseminated pilocytic astrocytomas and frequent nonfusion activating mutations. Genetic variants in these patients' tumors include BRAF p.Val600Glu, BRAF p.Val600Asp, and KRAS p.Gly60_Gln62ins7. The 2 patients with BRAF-mutated tumors were treated with dabrafenib or a combination of dabrafenib plus trametinib. The patients had either near complete resolution of the primary tumor (BRAF p.Val600Glu) or a stable primary tumor (BRAF p.Val600Asp). Both patients showed improvement in leptomeningeal dissemination without significant toxicity. Genomic testing of disseminated pilocytic astrocytomas, particularly those arising at extracerebellar locations, may result in the identification of mutations associated with ERK/MAPK activation. Patients with these activating mutations may benefit from targeted therapies.

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Silviya K. Meletath, Dean Pavlick, Tim Brennan, Roy Hamilton, Juliann Chmielecki, Julia A. Elvin, Norma Palma, Jeffrey S. Ross, Vincent A. Miller, Philip J. Stephens, George Snipes, Veena Rajaram, Siraj M. Ali, and Isaac Melguizo-Gavilanes

Background: Gangliogliomas are slow-growing, low-grade central nervous system tumors affecting children and young adults. However, some patients will experience tumor recurrence and/or malignant progression. This article reports on the clinical history, molecular findings, and treatment response in a patient with BRAF V600–mutated high-grade glioma arising from ganglioglioma. Methods: Hematoxylin-eosin staining and comprehensive genomic profiling via Foundation One were performed on the tumor sample from a male patient undergoing treatment at the Department of Neuro-Oncology at Baylor University Medical Center. Results: The patient was eligible for participation in a clinical trial ( identifier: NCT00916409) of a tumor treatment fields (TTFields) device, NovoTTF-100A, with concurrent radiation and chemotherapy (CCRT). His disease relapsed 4 months after completion of his CCRT, with MRI showing areas of enhancement. Temozolomide was discontinued and he was offered dabrafenib, an oral selective inhibitor of BRAF V600E, with continued use of NovoTTF. At the time of this report, after 2 years of treatment with dabrafenib and TTFields, the patient shows a durable complete response in all areas with no active lesions or new areas of enhancement. Conclusions: This report suggests that TTFields delivered in combination with targeted therapy dabrafenib yielded a remarkable clinical and radiologic response in this recurrent high-grade glioma. Targeted therapy matched to genomic alterations combined with TTFields treatment could provide clinical benefit and should be prospectively explored in the near future.