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Description of Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients With Metastatic Cancer: A National Sample

Kahee A. Mohammed, Leslie Hinyard, Martin W. Schoen, Christian J. Geneus, Eric S. Armbrecht, Fred R. Buckhold, and Thomas E. Burroughs

Background: This study aimed to determine patient-, tumor-, and hospital-level characteristics associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE), and to assess the impact of VTE on in-hospital mortality and length of hospital stay in hospitalized patients with metastatic cancer. Methods: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, a cross-sectional analysis was performed of patients aged ≥18 years with at least 1 diagnosis of primary solid tumor and subsequent secondary or metastatic tumor between 2008 and 2013. Results: Among 850,570 patients with metastatic cancer, 6.6% were diagnosed with VTE. A significant trend for increasing VTE rates were observed from 2008 to 2013 (5.7%–7.2%; P<.0001). Using an adjusted multilevel hierarchical regression model, higher odds of VTE were seen among women (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02–1.06), black versus white patients (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.11–1.18), and those with an Elixhauser comorbidity index score of ≥3 (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 2.38–2.63). Hospital-level correlates of VTE included treatment in a teaching hospital (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01–1.11) and an urban location (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09–1.27), and admission to hospitals in the Northeast (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08–1.24) and West (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03–1.16) versus the South. Patients with metastasis to the liver, brain, or respiratory organs and those with multiple (≥2) metastatic sites had higher odds of VTE, whereas those with metastasis to lymph nodes and genital organs had lower odds. Patients diagnosed with versus without VTE had higher odds of in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.38–1.63) and prolonged hospital stay (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.57–1.73). Conclusions: The frequency of VTE in patients with metastatic cancer is increasing. Patient characteristics, hospital factors, and site of metastasis independently predict the occurrence of VTE and allow for better stratification of patients with cancer according to their VTE risk.

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Optimizing Thromboembolism Prophylaxis for the Contemporary Age of Multiple Myeloma

Muhamed Baljevic, Douglas W. Sborov, Ming Y. Lim, Jens Hillengass, Thomas Martin, Jorge J. Castillo, Michael B. Streiff, Shaji K. Kumar, and Natalie S. Callander

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major complication in all patients with cancer. Compared with the general population, patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have a 9-fold increase in VTE risk, likely because of their malignancy, its treatments, and other additional patient-related factors. In MM, thromboembolism events tend to occur within 6 months of treatment initiation, regardless of treatment regimen; however, the use of immunomodulatory agents such as thalidomide or lenalidomide, especially in combination with dexamethasone or multiagent chemotherapy, is known to create a significant risk for VTE. Currently, official recommendations for VTE prophylaxis in MM outlined in various national guidelines or multidisciplinary society panels are based on expert opinion, because data from randomized controlled trials are scarce. Large studies which have mainly focused on the efficacy of thromboprophylaxis in patients with cancer at higher risk for VTE either had a very low representation of patients with MM, or excluded them all together, limiting our ability to draw evidence-based conclusions on how to effectively protect MM population from VTE. In this brief perspective, we highlight some of the greatest challenges that have hampered the field concerning the availability of high-quality clinical trial data for the formulation of best VTE prophylaxis strategies in patients with newly diagnosed MM, as well as the rationale for the latest updates in the NCCN Guidelines on this topic.

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Independent Prognostic Value of Serum Markers in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Era of the NCCN-IPI

Thomas Melchardt, Katharina Troppan, Lukas Weiss, Clemens Hufnagl, Daniel Neureiter, Wolfgang Tränkenschuh, Konstantin Schlick, Florian Huemer, Alexander Deutsch, Peter Neumeister, Richard Greil, Martin Pichler, and Alexander Egle

Background: Several serum parameters have been evaluated for adding prognostic value to clinical scoring systems in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but none of the reports used multivariate testing of more than one parameter at a time. The goal of this study was to validate widely available serum parameters for their independent prognostic impact in the era of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network–International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) score to determine which were the most useful. Patients and Methods: This retrospective bicenter analysis includes 515 unselected patients with DLBCL who were treated with rituximab and anthracycline-based chemoimmunotherapy between 2004 and January 2014. Results: Anemia, high C-reactive protein, and high bilirubin levels had an independent prognostic value for survival in multivariate analyses in addition to the NCCN-IPI, whereas neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, high gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, and platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio did not. Conclusions: In our cohort, we describe the most promising markers to improve the NCCN-IPI. Anemia and high C-reactive protein levels retain their power in multivariate testing even in the era of the NCCN-IPI. The negative role of high bilirubin levels may be associated as a marker of liver function. Further studies are warranted to incorporate these markers into prognostic models and define their role opposite novel molecular markers.

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Paving the Way for Dose Banding of Chemotherapy: An Analytical Approach

Heike Reinhardt, Rainer Trittler, Alison G. Eggleton, Stefan Wöhrl, Thomas Epting, Marion Buck, Sabine Kaiser, Daniel Jonas, Justus Duyster, Manfred Jung, Martin J. Hug, and Monika Engelhardt

Background: In an interdepartmental cooperation, we investigated the feasibility and benefits of implementing dose banding of chemotherapy at our medical center. Based on this concept, chemotherapy doses are clustered into bands of similar dosage levels, thereby allowing the preproduction of frequently used standard doses of drugs, with sufficient physicochemical stability. Although established practice in the United Kingdom, there is little published evidence of its introduction elsewhere. Methods: We performed an analysis of local prescribing practice (22,310 chemotherapies) and identified gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and carboplatin, among various others, as cytotoxic drugs suitable for dose banding. Results: First, we determined the physicochemical stability of the selected chemotherapy drugs during 12-weeks' storage by performing pH analysis and visual examination for color change or particles. No relevant changes were identified. Gemcitabine was selected for quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and we were able to show that ≥95% remained after 12 weeks' storage, in accordance with international guidelines. To simulate a worst case scenario, we performed microbiological stability testing of simulated cytotoxic compounding by replacing the cytotoxic drug with liquid media. Samples were incubated over defined storage time points (3, 6, and 12 weeks) and evaluated using the direct inoculation method. For the container integrity test, we deposited the samples into highly contaminated broth for 1 hour. Microbiological stability was demonstrated in both tests for the full storage period. Conclusions: Our data show that 12-weeks' storage of selected cytotoxic products is feasible from a microbiological perspective. Sterility of prepared products was maintained under extreme storage conditions. Gemcitabine content was in accordance with international guidelines after 12-weeks' storage. These results support the introduction of dose-banded gemcitabine products with the predicted advantages of optimized pharmacy workflow and reduced patient waiting times. We highlight the need for further research and consensus on the performance of purity analyses in dose-banded drug products.

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Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Version 3.2019, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Martin S. Tallman, Eunice S. Wang, Jessica K. Altman, Frederick R. Appelbaum, Vijaya Raj Bhatt, Dale Bixby, Steven E. Coutre, Marcos De Lima, Amir T. Fathi, Melanie Fiorella, James M. Foran, Aric C. Hall, Meagan Jacoby, Jeffrey Lancet, Thomas W. LeBlanc, Gabriel Mannis, Guido Marcucci, Michael G. Martin, Alice Mims, Margaret R. O’Donnell, Rebecca Olin, Deniz Peker, Alexander Perl, Daniel A. Pollyea, Keith Pratz, Thomas Prebet, Farhad Ravandi, Paul J. Shami, Richard M. Stone, Stephen A. Strickland, Matthew Wieduwilt, Kristina M. Gregory, OCN, Lydia Hammond, and Ndiya Ogba

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common form of acute leukemia among adults and accounts for the largest number of annual deaths due to leukemias in the United States. Recent advances have resulted in an expansion of treatment options for AML, especially concerning targeted therapies and low-intensity regimens. This portion of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for AML focuses on the management of AML and provides recommendations on the workup, diagnostic evaluation and treatment options for younger (age <60 years) and older (age ≥60 years) adult patients.

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The Management of Patients With Stage IIIA Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer With N2 Mediastinal Node Involvement

Renato G. Martins, Thomas A. D’Amico, Billy W. Loo Jr, Mary Pinder-Schenck, Hossein Borghaei, Jamie E. Chaft, Apar Kishor P. Ganti, Feng-Ming (Spring) Kong, Mark G. Kris, Inga T. Lennes, and Douglas E. Wood

Patients with stage IIIA non–small cell lung cancer, determined based on involvement of ipsilateral mediastinal lymph nodes, represent the most challenging management problem in this disease. Patients with this stage disease may have very different degrees of lymph node involvement. The pathologic confirmation of this involvement is a key step in the therapeutic decision. The difference in the degree of lymph node compromise has prognostic and treatment implications. Based on multiple considerations, patients can be treated with induction chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery, or definitive chemoradiotherapy without surgery. Data derived from clinical trials have provided incomplete guidance for physicians and their patients. The best therapeutic plan is achieved through the multidisciplinary cooperation of a team specialized in lung cancer.

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Sex- and Age-Related Differences in the Distribution of Metastases in Patients With Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

Marina Deuker, Giuseppe Rosiello, Lara Franziska Stolzenbach, Thomas Martin, Claudia Collà Ruvolo, Luigi Nocera, Zhe Tian, Frederik C. Roos, Andreas Becker, Luis A. Kluth, Derya Tilki, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Fred Saad, Felix K.H. Chun, and Pierre I. Karakiewicz

Background: The distribution of metastatic sites in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is not well-known. Consequently, the effects of sex and age on the location of metastases is also unknown. This study sought to investigate age- and sex-related differences in the distribution of metastases in patients with UTUC. Materials and Methods: Within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2000–2015), we identified 1,340 patients with metastatic UTUC. Sites of metastasis were assessed according to age (≤63, 64–72, 73–79, and ≥80 years) and sex. Comparison was performed with trend and chi-square tests. Results: Of 1,340 patients with metastatic UTUC, 790 (59.0%) were men (median age, 71 years) and 550 (41.0%) were women (median age, 74 years). The lung was the most common site of metastases in men and women (28.2% and 26.4%, respectively), followed by bone in men (22.3% vs 18.0% of women) and liver in women (24.4% vs 20.5% of men). Increasing age was associated with decreasing rates of brain metastasis in men (from 6.5% to 2.9%; P=.03) and women (from 5.9% to 0.7%; P=.01). Moreover, increasing age in women, but not in men, was associated with decreasing rates of lung (from 33.3% to 24.3%; P=.02), lymph node (from 28.9% to 15.8%; P=.01), and bone metastases (from 22.2% to 10.5%; P=.02). Finally, rates of metastases in multiple organs did not vary with age or sex (65.2% in men vs 66.5% in women). Conclusions: Lung, bone, and liver metastases are the most common metastatic sites in both sexes. However, the distribution of metastases varies according to sex and age. These observations apply to everyday clinical practice and may be used, for example, to advocate for universal bone imaging in patients with UTUC. Moreover, our findings may also be used for design considerations of randomized trials.

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NCCN Guidelines Insights: Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Version 2.2021

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Daniel A. Pollyea, Dale Bixby, Alexander Perl, Vijaya Raj Bhatt, Jessica K. Altman, Frederick R. Appelbaum, Marcos de Lima, Amir T. Fathi, James M. Foran, Ivana Gojo, Aric C. Hall, Meagan Jacoby, Jeffrey Lancet, Gabriel Mannis, Guido Marcucci, Michael G. Martin, Alice Mims, Jadee Neff, Reza Nejati, Rebecca Olin, Mary-Elizabeth Percival, Thomas Prebet, Amanda Przespolewski, Dinesh Rao, Farhad Ravandi-Kashani, Paul J. Shami, Richard M. Stone, Stephen A. Strickland, Kendra Sweet, Pankit Vachhani, Matthew Wieduwilt, Kristina M. Gregory, Ndiya Ogba, and Martin S. Tallman

The NCCN Guidelines for Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) provide recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of adults with AML based on clinical trials that have led to significant improvements in treatment, or have yielded new information regarding factors with prognostic importance, and are intended to aid physicians with clinical decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent select updates to the NCCN Guidelines, including familial genetic alterations in AML, postinduction or postremission treatment strategies in low-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia or favorable-risk AML, principles surrounding the use of venetoclax-based therapies, and considerations for patients who prefer not to receive blood transfusions during treatment.

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Neuroendocrine Tumors, Version 1.2015

Matthew H. Kulke, Manisha H. Shah, Al B. Benson III, Emily Bergsland, Jordan D. Berlin, Lawrence S. Blaszkowsky, Lyska Emerson, Paul F. Engstrom, Paul Fanta, Thomas Giordano, Whitney S. Goldner, Thorvardur R. Halfdanarson, Martin J. Heslin, Fouad Kandeel, Pamela L. Kunz, Boris W. Kuvshinoff II, Christopher Lieu, Jeffrey F. Moley, Gitonga Munene, Venu G. Pillarisetty, Leonard Saltz, Julie Ann Sosa, Jonathan R. Strosberg, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Christopher Wolfgang, James C. Yao, Jennifer Burns, and Deborah Freedman-Cass

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a broad family of tumors that may or may not be associated with symptoms attributable to hormonal hypersecretion. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Neuroendocrine Tumors discuss the diagnosis and management of both sporadic and hereditary NETs. This selection from the guidelines focuses on sporadic NETs of the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, lung, and thymus.

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Soft Tissue Sarcoma

George D. Demetri, Scott Antonia, Robert S. Benjamin, Marilyn M. Bui, Ephraim S. Casper, Ernest U. Conrad III, Thomas F. DeLaney, Kristen N. Ganjoo, Martin J. Heslin, Raymond J. Hutchinson, John M. Kane III, G. Douglas Letson, Sean V. McGarry, Richard J. O'Donnell, I. Benjamin Paz, John D. Pfeifer, Raphael E. Pollock, R. Lor Randall, Richard F. Riedel, Karen D. Schupak, Herbert S. Schwartz, Katherine Thornton, Margaret von Mehren, and Jeffrey Wayne