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Arjan A. van de Loosdrecht and Theresia M. Westers

Flow cytometry (FC) is recognized as one of the important tools in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), especially when cytomorphology and cytogenetics are inconclusive. Minimal requirements to analyze dysplasia using FC have been proposed by the International Workshops from the European LeukemiaNet on Standardization of FC in MDS. These should enable a categorization of FC results in cytopenic patients as “normal,” “suggestive of,” or “indicative of” MDS. Notably, FC should be considered as part of an integrated diagnosis, rather than as a separate technique. This article highlights tools to implement FC in the diagnostic workup of MDS. Current advances in FC for diagnosis and prognosis of MDS are also introduced.