Steven M. Sorscher
David S. Ettinger, Debra K. Armstrong, Sally Barbour, Michael J. Berger, Philip J. Bierman, Bob Bradbury, Georgianna Ellis, Steve Kirkegaard, Dwight D. Kloth, Mark G. Kris, Dean Lim, Michael Anne Markiewicz, Lida Nabati, Carli Nesheiwat, Hope S. Rugo, Steven M. Sorscher, Lisa Stucky-Marshal, Barbara Todaro and Susan Urba
Antiemesis Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology NCCN Categories of Evidence and Consensus Category 1: The recommendation is based on high-level evidence (e.g., randomized controlled trials) and there is uniform NCCN consensus. Category 2A: The recommendation is based on lowerlevel evidence and there is uniform NCCN consensus. Category 2B: The recommendation is based on lowerlevel evidence and there is nonuniform NCCN consensus (but no major disagreement). Category 3: The recommendation is based on any level of evidence but reflects major disagreement. All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise noted. Clinical trials: The NCCN believes that the best management for any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged. Overview Chemotherapy-induced vomiting (emesis) and nausea can significantly affect a patient's quality of life, leading to poor compliance with further chemotherapy treatment. Nausea and vomiting can also result in metabolic imbalances, degeneration of self-care and functional ability, nutrient depletion, anorexia, decline of performance and mental status, wound dehiscence, esophageal tears, and withdrawal from potentially useful or curative anticancer treatment.1–4 The incidence and severity of nausea and/or vomiting in patients undergoing chemotherapy are affected by numerous factors, including 1) the specific chemotherapeutic agents used, 2) dosage of the agents, 3) schedule and route of administration of the agents, and 4) individual patient variability (e.g., age, sex, prior chemotherapy, history of alcohol use). Approximately 70% to 80% of all patients undergoing chemotherapy experience nausea and/or vomiting,5,6 whereas 10% to 44% experience anticipatory nausea and/or vomiting;7–10 patients often experience more...