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YIA23-091: Disparities in Lung Cancer Screening Among Black Veterans

Neelima Navuluri, Samantha Morrison, Cynthia L. Green, Leah L. Zullig, Sandra L. Woolson, Christopher Cox, Isaretta Riley, and Scott Shofer

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Barriers and Facilitators Impacting Lung Cancer Screening Uptake Among Black Veterans: A Qualitative Study

Neelima Navuluri, Tiera Lanford, Abigail Shapiro, Govind Krishnan, Angela B. Johnson, Isaretta L. Riley, Leah L. Zullig, Christopher E. Cox, and Scott Shofer

Background: Racial disparities in lung cancer screening (LCS) are well established. Black Veterans are among those at the highest risk for developing lung cancer but are less likely to complete LCS. We sought to identify barriers and facilitators to LCS uptake among Black Veterans. Patients and Methods: A qualitative study using semistructured interviews was conducted with 32 Black Veterans to assess for barriers, facilitators, and contextual factors for LCS and strategies to improve screening. Veterans were purposively sampled by age, sex, and LCS participation status (ie, patients who received a low-dose CT [LDCT], patients who contacted the screening program but did not receive an LDCT, and patients who did not connect with the screening program nor receive an LDCT). Interview guides were developed using the Theoretical Domains Framework and Health Belief Model. Data were analyzed using rapid qualitative analysis. Results: Barriers of LCS uptake among Black Veterans include self-reported low LCS knowledge and poor memory, attention, and decision processes associated with the centralized LCS process. Facilitators of LCS uptake among Black Veterans include social/professional role; identity and social influences; perceived susceptibility, threat, and consequences due to smoking status and military or occupational exposures; emotion, behavioral regulation, and intentions; and high trust in providers. Environmental context and resources (eg, transportation) and race and racism serve as contextual factors that did not emerge as having a major impact on LCS uptake. Strategies to improve LCS uptake included increased social messaging surrounding LCS, various forms of information dissemination, LCS reminders, balanced and repeated shared decision-making discussions, and streamlined referrals. Conclusions: We identified addressable barriers and facilitators for LCS uptake among Black Veterans that can help focus efforts to improve disparities in screening. Future studies should explore provider perspectives and test interventions to improve equity in LCS.

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Increasing PET Use in Small Cell Lung Cancer: Survival Improvement and Stage Migration in the VA Central Cancer Registry

Julian C. Hong, Matthew J. Boyer, Daphna Y. Spiegel, Christina D. Williams, Betty C. Tong, Scott L. Shofer, Michael J. Moravan, Michael J. Kelley, and Joseph K. Salama

Background: Accurate staging for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is critical for determining appropriate therapy. The clinical impact of increasing PET adoption and stage migration is well described in non–small cell lung cancer but not in SCLC. The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal trends in PET staging and survival in the Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry and the impact of PET on outcomes. Patients and Methods: Patients diagnosed with SCLC from 2001 to 2010 were identified. PET staging, overall survival (OS), and lung cancer–specific survival (LCSS) were assessed over time. The impact of PET staging on OS and LCSS was assessed for limited-stage (LS) and extensive-stage (ES) SCLC. Results: From 2001 to 2010, PET use in a total of 10,135 patients with SCLC increased from 1.1% to 39.2%. Median OS improved for all patients (from 6.2 to 7.9 months), those with LS-SCLC (from 10.9 to 13.2 months), and those with ES-SCLC (from 5.0 to 7.0 months). Among staged patients, the proportion of ES-SCLC increased from 63.9% to 65.7%. Among 1,536 patients with LS-SCLC treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy, 397 were staged by PET. In these patients, PET was associated with longer OS (median, 19.8 vs 14.3 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68–0.90; P<.0001) and LCSS (median, 22.9 vs 16.7 months; HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63–0.87; P<.0001) with multivariate adjustment and propensity-matching. In the 6,143 patients with ES-SCLC, PET was also associated with improved OS and LCSS. Conclusions: From 2001 to 2010, PET staging increased in this large cohort, with a corresponding relative increase in ES-SCLC. PET was associated with greater OS and LCSS for LS-SCLC and ES-SCLC, likely reflecting stage migration and stage-appropriate therapy. These findings emphasize the importance of PET in SCLC and support its routine use.

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Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities, Version 1.2019, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

John A. Thompson, Bryan J. Schneider, Julie Brahmer, Stephanie Andrews, Philippe Armand, Shailender Bhatia, Lihua E. Budde, Luciano Costa, Marianne Davies, David Dunnington, Marc S. Ernstoff, Matthew Frigault, Brianna Hoffner, Christopher J. Hoimes, Mario Lacouture, Frederick Locke, Matthew Lunning, Nisha A. Mohindra, Jarushka Naidoo, Anthony J. Olszanski, Olalekan Oluwole, Sandip P. Patel, Sunil Reddy, Mabel Ryder, Bianca Santomasso, Scott Shofer, Jeffrey A. Sosman, Momen Wahidi, Yinghong Wang, Alyse Johnson-Chilla, and Jillian L. Scavone

The aim of the NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities is to provide guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events resulting from cancer immunotherapy. The NCCN Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities Panel is an interdisciplinary group of representatives from NCCN Member Institutions and ASCO, consisting of medical and hematologic oncologists with expertise in a wide array of disease sites, and experts from the fields of dermatology, gastroenterology, neuro-oncology, nephrology, emergency medicine, cardiology, oncology nursing, and patient advocacy. Several panel representatives are members of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC). The initial version of the NCCN Guidelines was designed in general alignment with recommendations published by ASCO and SITC. The content featured in this issue is an excerpt of the recommendations for managing toxicity related to immune checkpoint blockade and a review of existing evidence. For the full version of the NCCN Guidelines, including recommendations for managing toxicities related to chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, visit NCCN.org.