Although advanced Hodgkin lymphoma is highly curable, balancing the high cure rate with long-term toxicity is challenging. ABVD (doxorubicin [Adriamycin], bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) is the standard chemotherapy regimen, producing a high cure rate with acceptable toxicity. Stanford V and BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) are new regimens with encouraging results and are undergoing randomized clinical trials. The International Prognostic Score provides a clinical tool that may help identify patients with high-risk disease who may require a more aggressive regimen. Consolidative radiation's role in managing advanced Hodgkin lymphoma is still controversial, but it is most accepted for bulky or residual disease or after brief chemotherapy. The development and integration of newer imaging tools, such as fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography imaging, may allow a more precise evaluation of disease and help define which patients might benefit from consolidative treatment.
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Ranjana Advani, Weiyun Z. Ai, and Sandra J. Horning
Jerald P. Radich, Andrew D. Zelenetz, Wing C. Chan, Carlo M. Croce, Myron S. Czuczman, Harry P. Erba, Sandra J. Horning, Jane Houldsworth, B. Douglas Smith, David S. Snyder, Hema M. Sundar, Meir Wetzler, and Jane N. Winter
The introduction of targeted therapies has revolutionized treatment and improved outcomes in patients with leukemias and lymphomas. However, many patients experience relapse caused by the persistence of residual malignant cells. Cytogenetic and molecular techniques are increasingly being used to assess and quantify minimal residual disease (MRD). The emergence of advanced technologies has led to the discovery of multiple novel molecular markers that can be used to detect MRD and predict outcome in patients with leukemias and lymphomas. Gene expression signatures that predict clinical outcomes in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have been identified. In chronic myelogenous leukemia, molecular monitoring has become more important in assessing response and detecting resistance to therapy. In acute leukemias, several new markers have shown potential in prognostication and monitoring treatment. In leukemias and lymphomas, microRNAs have been identified that may be useful in diagnostics and prognostication. To address these issues, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) organized a task force consisting of a panel of experts in leukemia and lymphoma to discuss recent advances in the field of molecular markers and monitoring MRD.