Objective: To identify risk factors associated with refusal of recommended chemotherapy and its impact on patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods: We identified patients in the National Cancer Data Base diagnosed with EOC from January 1998 to December 2011. Patients who refused chemotherapy were identified and compared with those who received recommended, multiagent chemotherapy. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed using chi-square test with Bonferroni correction, binary logistic regression, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards modeling. The threshold for statistical significance was set at a P value of less than 0.05. Results: From a cohort of 147,713 eligible patients, 2,707 refused chemotherapy. These patients were compared with 92,212 patients who received recommended multiagent chemotherapy. Older age, more medical comorbidities, not having insurance, and later year of diagnosis were directly and significantly associated with chemotherapy refusal when analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. In addition, lower-than-expected facility adherence to NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Ovarian Cancer, treatment at low-volume center, lower grade, and higher stage were all significantly and independently associated with chemotherapy refusal. Median overall survival of patients who received multiagent chemotherapy was significantly longer than that of those who refused chemotherapy (43 vs 4.8 months; P<.0005). After controlling for known patient, facility, and disease prognostic factors, chemotherapy refusal is significantly associated with increased risk of death. Conclusions: Refusal of recommended chemotherapy carries significant risk of early death from ovarian cancer. Our data demonstrate that the decision to refuse chemotherapy is multifactorial and, in addition to unalterable factors (eg, stage/grade, age), involves factors that can be changed, including facility type and payor. Efforts at addressing these discrepancies in care can improve compliance with chemotherapy recommendations in the NCCN Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer and outcomes.
Sumer K. Wallace, Jeff F. Lin, William A. Cliby, Gary S. Leiserowitz, Ana I. Tergas and Robert E. Bristow
Benjamin E. Greer, Wui-Jin Koh, Nadeem Abu-Rustum, Michael A. Bookman, Robert E. Bristow, Susana M. Campos, Kathleen R. Cho, Larry Copeland, Marta Ann Crispens, Patricia J. Eifel, Warner K. Huh, Wainwright Jaggernauth, Daniel S. Kapp, John J. Kavanagh, John R. Lurain III, Mark Morgan, Robert J. Morgan Jr, C. Bethan Powell, Steven W. Remmenga, R. Kevin Reynolds, Angeles Alvarez Secord, William Small Jr and Nelson Teng
Uterine Neoplasms Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology NCCN Categories of Evidence and Consensus Category 1: The recommendation is based on high-level evidence (e.g., randomized controlled trials) and there is uniform NCCN consensus. Category 2A: The recommendation is based on lowerlevel evidence and there is uniform NCCN consensus. Category 2B: The recommendation is based on lowerlevel evidence and there is nonuniform NCCN consensus (but no major disagreement). Category 3: The recommendation is based on any level of evidence but reflects major disagreement. All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise noted. Clinical trials: The NCCN believes that the best management for any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged. Overview Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium is the most common malignancy in the female genital tract in the United States. An estimated 40,100 new diagnoses of uterine cancer and 7470 deaths from this disease will occur in 2008.1 Uterine sarcomas are uncommon and account for approximately 1 in 12 of all uterine cancers.2 These guidelines describe epithelial carcinomas and uterine sarcomas; each of these major categories contains specific histologic groups that require different management (see page 500). By definition, these guidelines cannot incorporate all possible clinical variations and are not intended to replace good clinical judgment or individualization of treatments. Exceptions to the rule were discussed among panel members during the process of developing these guidelines. For patients with suspected uterine neoplasms, initial preoperative evaluation includes a history and physical examination, endometrial biopsy, chest radiograph, a CBC,...