Objective: To identify risk factors associated with refusal of recommended chemotherapy and its impact on patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods: We identified patients in the National Cancer Data Base diagnosed with EOC from January 1998 to December 2011. Patients who refused chemotherapy were identified and compared with those who received recommended, multiagent chemotherapy. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed using chi-square test with Bonferroni correction, binary logistic regression, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards modeling. The threshold for statistical significance was set at a P value of less than 0.05. Results: From a cohort of 147,713 eligible patients, 2,707 refused chemotherapy. These patients were compared with 92,212 patients who received recommended multiagent chemotherapy. Older age, more medical comorbidities, not having insurance, and later year of diagnosis were directly and significantly associated with chemotherapy refusal when analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. In addition, lower-than-expected facility adherence to NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Ovarian Cancer, treatment at low-volume center, lower grade, and higher stage were all significantly and independently associated with chemotherapy refusal. Median overall survival of patients who received multiagent chemotherapy was significantly longer than that of those who refused chemotherapy (43 vs 4.8 months; P<.0005). After controlling for known patient, facility, and disease prognostic factors, chemotherapy refusal is significantly associated with increased risk of death. Conclusions: Refusal of recommended chemotherapy carries significant risk of early death from ovarian cancer. Our data demonstrate that the decision to refuse chemotherapy is multifactorial and, in addition to unalterable factors (eg, stage/grade, age), involves factors that can be changed, including facility type and payor. Efforts at addressing these discrepancies in care can improve compliance with chemotherapy recommendations in the NCCN Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer and outcomes.
Sumer K. Wallace, Jeff F. Lin, William A. Cliby, Gary S. Leiserowitz, Ana I. Tergas and Robert E. Bristow
Carolina Villanueva, Jenny Chang, Scott M. Bartell, Argyrios Ziogas, Robert Bristow and Verónica M. Vieira
Background: More than 14,000 women in the United States die of ovarian cancer (OC) every year. Disparities in survival have been observed by race and socioeconomic status (SES), and vary spatially even after adjusting for treatment received. This study aimed to determine the impact of geographic location on receiving treatment adherent to the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for OC, independent of other predictors. Patients and Methods: Women diagnosed with all stages of epithelial OC (1996–2014) were identified through the California Cancer Registry. Generalized additive models, smoothing for residential location, were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for receiving nonadherent care throughout California. We assessed the impact of distance traveled for care, distance to closest high-quality hospital, race/ethnicity, and SES on receipt of quality care, adjusting for demographic and cancer characteristics and stratifying by disease stage. Results: Of 29,844 patients with OC, 11,419 (38.3%) received guideline-adherent care. ORs for nonadherent care were lower in northern California and higher in Kern and Los Angeles counties. Magnitudes of associations with location varied by stage (OR range, 0.45–2.19). Living farther from a high-quality hospital increased the odds of receiving nonadherent care (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.07–1.29), but travel >32 km to receive care was associated with decreased odds (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.70–0.84). American Indian/other women were more likely to travel greater distances to receive care. Women in the highest SES quintile, those with Medicare insurance, and women of non-Hispanic black race were less likely to travel far. Patients who were Asian/Pacific Islander lived the closest to a high-quality hospital. Conclusions: Among California women diagnosed with OC, living closer to a high-quality center was associated with receiving adherent care. Non-Hispanic black women were less likely to receive adherent care, and women with lower SES lived farthest from high-quality hospitals. Geographic location in California is an independent predictor of adherence to NCCN Guidelines for OC.