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Erin Currin, Lanell M. Peterson, Erin K. Schubert, Jeanne M. Link, Kenneth A. Krohn, Robert B. Livingston, David A. Mankoff and Hannah M. Linden

Changes in estrogen receptor (ER) expression over the course of therapy may affect response to endocrine therapy. However, measuring temporal changes in ER expression requires serial biopsies, which are impractical and poorly tolerated by most patients. Functional ER imaging using 18F-fluoroestradiol (FES)-PET provides a noninvasive measure of regional ER expression and is ideally suited to serial studies. Additionally, lack of measurable FES uptake in metastatic sites of disease predict tumor progression in patients with ER-positive primary tumors treated with endocrine therapy. This report presents a case of restored sensitivity to endocrine therapy in a patient with bone-dominant breast cancer who underwent serial observational FES-PET imaging over the course of several treatments at our center, demonstrating the temporal heterogeneity of regional ER expression. Although loss and restoration of endocrine sensitivity in patients who have undergone prior hormonal and cytotoxic treatments has been reported, this is, to our knowledge, the first time the accompanying changes in ER expression have been documented by molecular imaging.