Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 32 items for

  • Author: Richard Do x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Richard L. Theriault

Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone. Metastases result in skeletal morbidity including pathologic fractures, the need for radiation or surgery to bone, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia. The pathophysiology of bone destruction is related to activation of osteoclasts by tumor-derived and bone marrow microenvironmental factors. One prominent osteoclast–activating factor associated with breast cancer is parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP). Bisphosphonates have been shown to impair osteoclast activity by decreasing recruitment from the monocyte macrophage cell line, inhibiting osteoclast function at the bone site and causing osteoclasts to undergo apoptosis. Clinical studies with bisphosphonates show an improvement in the control of hypercalcemia and a reduction in skeletal related morbidity with administration of pamidronate and zoledronic acid. Bisphosphonates have become the standard of care for osteolytic metastases associated with breast cancer. Recent data with zoledronic acid found that skeletal related morbidity may be reduced regardless of the radiographic picture of skeletal metastases. Thus, zoledronic acid may be valuable in osteolytic and osteoblastic disease as well as in disease with an osteolytic or osteoblastic radiographic appearance. In breast cancer with osteolytic disease, zoledronic acid may be more effective than pamidronate in reducing skeletal morbidity and prolonging the time to first skeletal event.

Full access

Alyssa G. Rieber and Richard L. Theriault

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have greatly enriched the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. Before the introduction of the well-tolerated third-generation AIs, tamoxifen was the mainstay of endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Many clinical trials have shown the superiority of AIs compared with tamoxifen in adjuvant breast cancer treatment, as well as their benefit in metastatic breast cancer. NCCN guidelines recommendations for their use are based on the evidence provided by these clinical trials. This discussion reviews the evidence supporting the current guidelines for use of AI therapy in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

Full access

Richard B. Hostetter, Min Yan, Houman Vaghefi, Kenneth Pennington and Gary Cornette

A patient presented with signs and symptoms of tenesmus, urgency, and rectal bleeding that she had been experiencing over the course of several months. Full endoscopic evaluation showed a 6-cm submucosal mass approximately 10 cm from the dente line projecting as an endoluminal mass with a large broad base. An initial endoscopic resection was attempted but aborted because of significant hemorrhage, and surgical oncology was consulted. After stabilization, the patient underwent a transanal resection of the mass the following day. An endoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis stapler resulted in a margin-negative complete resection of what was later determined to be a high-grade synovial cell sarcoma. This case report presents the first known documented case of synovial cell sarcoma of the rectum.

Full access

Brandon R. Mason, James A. Eastham, Brian J. Davis, Lance A. Mynderse, Thomas J. Pugh, Richard J. Lee and Joseph E. Ippolito

Prostate cancer (PCa) represents a significant source of morbidity and mortality for men in the United States, with approximately 1 in 9 being diagnosed with PCa in their lifetime. The role of imaging in the evaluation of men with PCa has evolved and currently plays a central role in diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation of recurrence. Appropriate use of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and MRI-guided transrectal ultrasound (MR-TRUS) biopsy increases the detection of clinically significant PCa while decreasing the detection of clinically insignificant PCa. This process may help patients with clinically insignificant PCa avoid the adverse effects of unnecessary therapy. In the setting of a known PCa, patients with low-grade disease can be observed using active surveillance, which often includes a combination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, serial mpMRI, and, if indicated, follow-up systematic and targeted TRUS-guided tissue sampling. mpMRI can provide important information in the posttreatment setting, but PET/CT is creating a paradigm shift in imaging standards for patients with locally recurrent and metastatic PCa. This article examines the strengths and limitations of mpMRI for initial PCa diagnosis, active surveillance, recurrent disease evaluation, and image-guided biopsies, and the use of PET/CT imaging in men with recurrent PCa. The goal of this review is to provide a rational basis for current NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for PCa as they pertain to the use of these advanced imaging modalities.

Full access

Tiffany H. Svahn, Joyce C. Niland, Robert W. Carlson, Melissa E. Hughes, Rebecca A. Ottesen, Richard L. Theriault, Stephen B. Edge, Anne F. Schott, Michael A. Bookman and Jane C. Weeks

After the first report of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) trial, adjuvant aromatase inhibitor use increased rapidly among National Comprehensive Cancer Network member institutions. Increased aromatase inhibitor use was associated with older age, vascular disease, overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), or more advanced stage, and substantial variation was seen among institutions. This article examines adjuvant endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women after the first report of the trial, identifies temporal relationships in aromatase inhibitor use, and examines characteristics associated with choice of endocrine therapy among 4044 postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor–positive nonmetastatic breast cancer presenting from July 1997 to December 2004. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined temporal associations and characteristics associated with aromatase inhibitor use. Time-trend analysis showed increased aromatase inhibitor and decreased tamoxifen use after release of ATAC results (P < .0001). In multivariable regression analysis, institution (P <. 0001), vascular disease (P <. 0001), age (P = .0002), stage (P = .0002), and HER2 status (P = .0009) independently predicted aromatase inhibitor use. Institutional rates of use ranged from 15% to 66%. Adjuvant aromatase inhibitor use increased after the first report of ATAC, with this increase associated with older age, vascular disease, overexpression of HER2, or more advanced stage. Substantial variation was seen among institutions.

Full access

Robert J. Motzer, Neeraj Agarwal, Clair Beard, Sam Bhayani, Graeme B. Bolger, Mark K. Buyyounouski, Michael A. Carducci, Sam S. Chang, Toni K. Choueiri, Shilpa Gupta, Steven L. Hancock, Gary R. Hudes, Eric Jonasch, Timothy M. Kuzel, Clayton Lau, Ellis G. Levine, Daniel W. Lin, Kim A. Margolin, M. Dror Michaelson, Thomas Olencki, Roberto Pili, Thomas W. Ratliff, Bruce G. Redman, Cary N. Robertson, Charles J. Ryan, Joel Sheinfeld, Jue Wang and Richard B. Wilder

Full access

Robert J. Motzer, Neeraj Agarwal, Clair Beard, Sam Bhayani, Graeme B. Bolger, Michael A. Carducci, Sam S. Chang, Toni K. Choueiri, Steven L. Hancock, Gary R. Hudes, Eric Jonasch, David Josephson, Timothy M. Kuzel, Ellis G. Levine, Daniel W. Lin, Kim A. Margolin, M. Dror Michaelson, Thomas Olencki, Roberto Pili, Thomas W. Ratliff, Bruce G. Redman, Cary N. Robertson, Charles J. Ryan, Joel Sheinfeld, Philippe E. Spiess, Jue Wang and Richard B. Wilder

Full access

James J. Harding, Ghaith Abu-Zeinah, Joanne F. Chou, Dwight Hall Owen, Michele Ly, Maeve Aine Lowery, Marinela Capanu, Richard Do, Nancy E. Kemeny, Eileen M. O'Reilly, Leonard B. Saltz and Ghassan K. Abou-Alfa

Background: Bone metastases are common in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but their incidence, morbidity, and mortality are not well defined. Methods: The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center database was queried for all patients with HCC and metastases seen from 2002 to 2014. The prevalence of bone metastasis was determined and cumulative incidence function was used to estimate the probability of developing a bone metastasis. Regression models were created to identify risk factors for osseous metastasis. The frequency of skeletal-related events (SREs), defined as pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression, need for radiation therapy to bone, and/or surgical resection of bone, was determined and cumulative incidence function was used to estimate the probability of SRE development. Regression models were created to identify SRE risk factors. Correlation of clinicopathologic parameters, including bone metastases and SREs, with overall survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methodology. Results: A total of 459 patients with HCC and extrahepatic metastases were identified; 151 patients (32.9%) had or developed bone metastases: 128 (27.9%) as a primary site and 23 (4.6%) as a secondary site of extrahepatic disease. Among the 331 patients without bone metastasis at presentation, the yearly incidence of bone metastasis was 6.4% (95% CI, 3.6%–9.2%). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increased the chance of developing a bone metastasis (P=.02). The cumulative incidence of SREs was 50% at 6 months. Univariate analysis showed that patients with HBV-related HCC had a significantly higher incidence of SREs (P=.02). Sorafenib and bisphosphonates each protected against SREs. The presence of SREs was independently associated with a worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.52–2.97; P<.01) in the multivariable model. Conclusions: Patients with AJCC stage IV HCC and bone metastases that are clinically evident on routine radiography or on clinical examination at presentation are apt to develop frequent, morbid, and mortal SREs, whereas those without evident bone metastasis at presentation are unlikely to develop these complications.

Full access

Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Neeraj Agarwal, Clair Beard, Sam Bhayani, Graeme B. Bolger, Sam S. Chang, Toni K. Choueiri, Brian A. Costello, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Shilpa Gupta, Steven L. Hancock, Jenny J. Kim, Timothy M. Kuzel, Elaine T. Lam, Clayton Lau, Ellis G. Levine, Daniel W. Lin, M. Dror Michaelson, Thomas Olencki, Roberto Pili, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Edward N. Rampersaud, Bruce G. Redman, Charles J. Ryan, Joel Sheinfeld, Brian Shuch, Kanishka Sircar, Brad Somer, Richard B. Wilder, Mary Dwyer and Rashmi Kumar

The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer provide multidisciplinary recommendations for the clinical management of patients with clear cell and non-clear cell renal carcinoma. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the recent updates/changes in these guidelines, and updates include axitinib as first-line treatment option for patients with clear cell renal carcinoma, new data to support pazopanib as subsequent therapy for patients with clear cell carcinoma after first-line treatment with another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and guidelines for follow-up of patients with renal cell carcinoma.

Full access

Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Neeraj Agarwal, Clair Beard, Sam Bhayani, Graeme B. Bolger, Sam S. Chang, Toni K. Choueiri, Brian A. Costello, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Shilpa Gupta, Steven L. Hancock, Jenny J. Kim, Timothy M. Kuzel, Elaine T. Lam, Clayton Lau, Ellis G. Levine, Daniel W. Lin, M. Dror Michaelson, Thomas Olencki, Roberto Pili, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Edward N. Rampersaud, Bruce G. Redman, Charles J. Ryan, Joel Sheinfeld, Brian Shuch, Kanishka Sircar, Brad Somer, Richard B. Wilder, Mary Dwyer and Rashmi Kumar

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) account for 95% of testicular cancers. Testicular GCTs constitute the most common solid tumor in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years, and the incidence of testicular GCTs has been increasing in the past 2 decades. Testicular GCTs are classified into 2 broad groups—pure seminoma and nonseminoma—which are treated differently. Pure seminomas, unlike nonseminomas, are more likely to be localized to the testis at presentation. Nonseminoma is the more clinically aggressive tumor associated with elevated serum concentrations of alphafetoprotein (AFP). The diagnosis of a seminoma is restricted to pure seminoma histology and a normal serum concentration of AFP. When both seminoma and elements of a nonseminoma are present, management follows that for a nonseminoma. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Testicular Cancer outline the diagnosis, workup, risk assessment, treatment, and follow-up schedules for patients with both pure seminoma and nonseminoma.