Renuka Iyer and Kaunteya Reddy
Lorraine C. Drapek, Karen Driskill, Natasha Pinheiro, Ronald Harris, Renuka Iyer, and Susan Acquisto
Background: Biliary obstruction often occurs with hepatobiliary cancers. Treatment consists of internal biliary stents or external biliary drains. Patient education regarding signs and symptoms of cholangitis, change of stents, or care of biliary drains is both critical and challenging. The Nursing Advisory Board of the Cholangiocarcinoma Foundation (CCF) found patient questions regarding stents and drains posted on the CCF website. Quality of life is impacted by treatment complications as well as lack of knowledge regarding living with stents or drains. Aim: To compare stent and biliary drain patient education practices of NCCN Member Institutions across the United States. Methods: A 40 item information survey was sent to the NCCN Member Institutions by email. Intended respondents were nursing or health professionals who provided patient instruction regarding biliary stents drains. The survey was sent to interventional radiology and endoscopy departments. It included questions regarding demographics of respondents, patient education and instructions, supplies provided, signs and symptoms to be reported, and follow-up appointments. Results: There were 26 survey responses. Of the 26 responses, 23 responses were complete. Patient education regarding stents or drains was predominantly completed by registered nurses (74%), or nurse practitioners (26%). The largest number of respondents practiced in interventional radiology (52%), endoscopy (13%), and other (30%), which included gastroenterology, or surgery. Verbal and written instructions were provided by 87% of NCCN centers. There was variation in survey responses regarding biliary drains. Survey responses regarding biliary stents were more cohesive. A schedule for stent change was provided by 75% of NCCN Member Institutions, although there was variation on length of time between stent exchanges. The majority of patients at these institutions receive education regarding signs and symptoms to report (95%). Conclusion: Discharge instructions to patients with external drains are inconsistent. Although there is some agreement among NCCN Member Institutions, the schedules for stent change vary. Patient education and instruction is predominantly provided by nurses and NPs. The importance of teaching signs and symptoms to report is evident in this sample. Standardized patient instructions post stents or external biliary drains may enable patients to care for drains and will help nurses and NPs reinforce consistent education.
David S. Ettinger, Mark Agulnik, Justin M. M. Cates, Mihaela Cristea, Crystal S. Denlinger, Keith D. Eaton, Panagiotis M. Fidias, David Gierada, Jon P. Gockerman, Charles R. Handorf, Renuka Iyer, Renato Lenzi, John Phay, Asif Rashid, Leonard Saltz, Lawrence N. Shulman, Jeffrey B. Smerage, Gauri R. Varadhachary, Jonathan S. Zager, and Weining (Ken) Zhen
Medhavi Gupta, Christopher Sherrow, Maghan E. Krone, Edik M. Blais, Michael J. Pishvaian, Emanuel F. Petricoin III, Lynn M. Matrisian, Patricia DeArbeloa, Gary Gregory, Alyson Brown, Olivia Zalewski, Gillian Prinzing, Charles Roche, Kazunori Kanehira, Sarbajit Mukherjee, Renuka Iyer, and Christos Fountzilas
Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (PACC) is a rare pancreatic exocrine malignancy. Compared with the more common pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), PACC is more common in younger White men, has earlier stages and a lower mean age (56 vs 70 years) at the time of presentation, and has a better prognosis. In addition to differences in demographic, histologic, and clinical characteristics, PACC has a genomic profile distinct from PDAC, with only rare mutations in TP53, KRAS, and p16 that are commonly found in PDAC. This case report presents a man aged 81 years who presented with a pancreatic body mass with peripancreatic lymph node enlargement. Biopsy of the mass showed acinar cell carcinoma. The patient underwent upfront surgical resection, followed by one cycle of adjuvant gemcitabine, with stoppage of therapy due to poor tolerance. Lower-dose gemcitabine was reintroduced after disease progression 6 months later. Nab-paclitaxel was added to gemcitabine after 6 cycles because of a continued increase in the size of peripancreatic lymph nodes. Combination chemotherapy was stopped after 4 cycles because of further disease progression with new liver metastasis. Molecular testing showed the presence of an SEL1L-NTRK1 fusion. Targeted therapy was started with the oral neurotrophic tropomyosin receptor kinase (NTRK) inhibitor larotrectinib at a dosage of 100 mg twice daily. At the time of writing, the patient has been on therapy for 13 months with an exceptional radiographic response and has not experienced any grade 3 adverse effects. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of an NTRK gene fusion in a patient with PACC. This case study highlights the significance of tumor molecular profiling in patients with pancreatic tumors, especially rare histologies.
David S. Ettinger, Charles R. Handorf, Mark Agulnik, Daniel W. Bowles, Justin M. Cates, Mihaela Cristea, Efrat Dotan, Keith D. Eaton, Panagiotis M. Fidias, David Gierada, G. Weldon Gilcrease, Kelly Godby, Renuka Iyer, Renato Lenzi, John Phay, Asif Rashid, Leonard Saltz, Richard B. Schwab, Lawrence N. Shulman, Jeffrey B. Smerage, Marvaretta M. Stevenson, Gauri R. Varadhachary, Jonathan S. Zager, Weining (Ken) Zhen, Mary Anne Bergman, and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass
The NCCN Guidelines for Occult Primary tumors provide recommendations for the evaluation, workup, management, and follow-up of patients with occult primary tumors (cancers of unknown primary). These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize major discussion points of the 2014 NCCN Occult Primary panel meeting. The panel discussed gene expression profiling (GEP) for the identification of the tissue of origin and concluded that, although GEP has a diagnostic benefit, a clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. The panel recommends against GEP as standard management, although 20% of the panel believes the diagnostic benefit of GEP warrants its routine use. In addition, the panel discussed testing for actionable mutations (eg, ALK) to help guide choice of therapy, but declined to add this recommendation.
Al B. Benson III, Michael I. D’Angelica, Thomas A. Abrams, Chandrakanth Are, P. Mark Bloomston, Daniel T. Chang, Bryan M. Clary, Anne M. Covey, William D. Ensminger, Renuka Iyer, R. Kate Kelley, David Linehan, Mokenge P. Malafa, Steven G. Meranze, James O. Park, Timothy Pawlik, James A. Posey, Courtney Scaife, Tracey Schefter, Elin R. Sigurdson, G. Gary Tian, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Alan P. Venook, Yun Yen, Andrew X. Zhu, Karin G. Hoffmann, Nicole R. McMillian, and Hema Sundar
Hepatobiliary cancers include a spectrum of invasive carcinomas arising in the liver (hepatocellular carcinoma), gall bladder, and bile ducts (cholangiocarcinomas). Gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinomas are collectively known as biliary tract cancers. Gallbladder cancer is the most common and aggressive type of all the biliary tract cancers. Cholangiocarcinomas are diagnosed throughout the biliary tree and are typically classified as either intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas are more common than intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. This manuscript focuses on the clinical management of patients with gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinomas (intrahepatic and extrahepatic).
Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines
Al B. Benson III, Michael I. D’Angelica, Daniel E. Abbott, Thomas A. Abrams, Steven R. Alberts, Daniel A. Anaya, Robert Anders, Chandrakanth Are, Daniel Brown, Daniel T. Chang, Jordan Cloyd, Anne M. Covey, William Hawkins, Renuka Iyer, Rojymon Jacob, Andreas Karachristos, R. Kate Kelley, Robin Kim, Manisha Palta, James O. Park, Vaibhav Sahai, Tracey Schefter, Jason K. Sicklick, Gagandeep Singh, Davendra Sohal, Stacey Stein, G. Gary Tian, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Alan P. Venook, Lydia J. Hammond, and Susan D. Darlow
The NCCN Guidelines for Hepatobiliary Cancers provide treatment recommendations for cancers of the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. The NCCN Hepatobiliary Cancers Panel meets at least annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions, examine relevant new data from publications and abstracts, and reevaluate and update their recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel’s discussion and updated recommendations regarding systemic therapy for first-line and subsequent-line treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Al B. Benson III, Michael I. D'Angelica, Daniel E. Abbott, Thomas A. Abrams, Steven R. Alberts, Daniel A. Anaya, Chandrakanth Are, Daniel B. Brown, Daniel T. Chang, Anne M. Covey, William Hawkins, Renuka Iyer, Rojymon Jacob, Andrea Karachristos, R. Kate Kelley, Robin Kim, Manisha Palta, James O. Park, Vaibhav Sahai, Tracey Schefter, Carl Schmidt, Jason K. Sicklick, Gagandeep Singh, Davendra Sohal, Stacey Stein, G. Gary Tian, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Alan P. Venook, Andrew X. Zhu, Karin G. Hoffmann, and Susan Darlow
The NCCN Guidelines for Hepatobiliary Cancers provide treatment recommendations for cancers of the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. The NCCN Hepatobiliary Cancers Panel meets at least annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions, examine relevant new data from publications and abstracts, and reevaluate and update their recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel's discussion and most recent recommendations regarding locoregional therapy for treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Al B. Benson, Michael I. D’Angelica, Daniel E. Abbott, Daniel A. Anaya, Robert Anders, Chandrakanth Are, Melinda Bachini, Mitesh Borad, Daniel Brown, Adam Burgoyne, Prabhleen Chahal, Daniel T. Chang, Jordan Cloyd, Anne M. Covey, Evan S. Glazer, Lipika Goyal, William G. Hawkins, Renuka Iyer, Rojymon Jacob, R. Kate Kelley, Robin Kim, Matthew Levine, Manisha Palta, James O. Park, Steven Raman, Sanjay Reddy, Vaibhav Sahai, Tracey Schefter, Gagandeep Singh, Stacey Stein, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Alan P. Venook, Adam Yopp, Nicole R. McMillian, Cindy Hochstetler, and Susan D. Darlow
The NCCN Guidelines for Hepatobiliary Cancers focus on the screening, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), gallbladder cancer, and cancer of the bile ducts (intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma). Due to the multiple modalities that can be used to treat the disease and the complications that can arise from comorbid liver dysfunction, a multidisciplinary evaluation is essential for determining an optimal treatment strategy. A multidisciplinary team should include hepatologists, diagnostic radiologists, interventional radiologists, surgeons, medical oncologists, and pathologists with hepatobiliary cancer expertise. In addition to surgery, transplant, and intra-arterial therapies, there have been great advances in the systemic treatment of HCC. Until recently, sorafenib was the only systemic therapy option for patients with advanced HCC. In 2020, the combination of atezolizumab and bevacizumab became the first regimen to show superior survival to sorafenib, gaining it FDA approval as a new frontline standard regimen for unresectable or metastatic HCC. This article discusses the NCCN Guidelines recommendations for HCC.