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Julie R. Gralow, J. Sybil Biermann, Azeez Farooki, Monica N. Fornier, Robert F. Gagel, Rashmi Kumar, Georgia Litsas, Rana McKay, Donald A. Podoloff, Sandy Srinivas and Catherine H. Van Poznak

Bone health and maintenance of bone integrity are important components of comprehensive cancer care. Many patients with cancer are at risk for therapy-induced bone loss, with resultant osteoporotic fractures, or skeletal metastases, which may result in pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia, bone pain, and decline in motility and performance status. Effective screening and timely interventions are essential for reducing bone-related morbidity. Management of long-term bone health requires a broad knowledge base. A multidisciplinary health care team may be needed for optimal assessment and treatment of bone-related issues in patients with cancer. Since publication of the previous NCCN Task Force Report: Bone Health in Cancer Care in 2009, new data have emerged on bone health and treatment, prompting NCCN to convene this multidisciplinary task force to discuss the progress made in optimizing bone health in patients with cancer. In December 2012, the panel members provided didactic presentations on various topics, integrating expert judgment with a review of the key literature. This report summarizes issues surrounding bone health in cancer care presented and discussed during this NCCN Bone Health in Cancer Care Task Force meeting.

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Lucas K. Vitzthum, Chris Straka, Reith R. Sarkar, Rana McKay, J. Michael Randall, Ajay Sandhu, James D. Murphy and Brent S. Rose

Background: The addition of androgen deprivation therapy to radiation therapy (RT) improves survival in patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer (PCa), but it is not known whether combined androgen blockade (CAB) with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-A) and a nonsteroidal antiandrogen improves survival over GnRH-A monotherapy. Methods: This study evaluated patients with intermediate- and high-risk PCa diagnosed in 2001 through 2015 who underwent RT with either GnRH-A alone or CAB using the Veterans Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure. Associations between CAB and prostate cancer–specific mortality (PCSM) and overall survival (OS) were determined using multivariable regression with Fine-Gray and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. For a positive control, the effect of long-term versus short-term GnRH-A therapy was tested. Results: The cohort included 8,423 men (GnRH-A, 4,529; CAB, 3,894) with a median follow-up of 5.9 years. There were 1,861 deaths, including 349 resulting from PCa. The unadjusted cumulative incidences of PCSM at 10 years were 5.9% and 6.9% for those receiving GnRH-A and CAB, respectively (P=.16). Compared with GnRH-A alone, CAB was not associated with a significant difference in covariate-adjusted PCSM (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR], 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85–1.30) or OS (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.93–1.12). For high-risk patients, long-term versus short-term GnRH-A therapy was associated with improved PCSM (SHR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57–0.95) and OS (SHR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73–0.93). Conclusions: In men receiving definitive RT for intermediate- or high-risk PCa, CAB was not associated with improved PCSM or OS compared with GnRH alone.

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NCCN Guidelines Insights: Prostate Cancer, Version 1.2021

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Edward Schaeffer, Sandy Srinivas, Emmanuel S. Antonarakis, Andrew J. Armstrong, Justin E. Bekelman, Heather Cheng, Anthony Victor D’Amico, Brian J. Davis, Neil Desai, Tanya Dorff, James A. Eastham, Thomas A. Farrington, Xin Gao, Eric Mark Horwitz, Joseph E. Ippolito, Michael R. Kuettel, Joshua M. Lang, Rana McKay, Jesse McKenney, George Netto, David F. Penson, Julio M. Pow-Sang, Robert Reiter, Sylvia Richey, Mack Roach, III, Stan Rosenfeld, Ahmad Shabsigh, Daniel E. Spratt, Benjamin A. Teply, Jonathan Tward, Dorothy A. Shead and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer address staging and risk assessment after a prostate cancer diagnosis and include management options for localized, regional, and metastatic disease. Recommendations for disease monitoring and treatment of recurrent disease are also included. The NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel meets annually to reevaluate and update their recommendations based on new clinical data and input from within NCCN Member Institutions and from external entities. This article summarizes the panel’s discussions for the 2021 update of the guidelines with regard to systemic therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.