Background: We aimed to identify factors associated with false-positive recalls in mammography screening compared with women who were not recalled and those who received true-positive recalls. Methods: We included 29,129 women, aged 40 to 74 years, who participated in the Karolinska Mammography Project for Risk Prediction of Breast Cancer (KARMA) between 2011 and 2013 with follow-up until the end of 2017. Nonmammographic factors were collected from questionnaires, mammographic factors were generated from mammograms, and genotypes were determined using the OncoArray or an Illumina custom array. By the use of conditional and regular logistic regression models, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk factors and risk models and false-positive recalls. Results: Women with a history of benign breast disease, high breast density, masses, microcalcifications, high Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year risk scores, KARMA 2-year risk scores, and polygenic risk scores were more likely to have mammography recalls, including both false-positive and true-positive recalls. Further analyses restricted to women who were recalled found that women with a history of benign breast disease and dense breasts had a similar risk of having false-positive and true-positive recalls, whereas women with masses, microcalcifications, high Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year risk scores, KARMA 2-year risk scores, and polygenic risk scores were more likely to have true-positive recalls than false-positive recalls. Conclusions: We found that risk factors associated with false-positive recalls were also likely, or even more likely, to be associated with true-positive recalls in mammography screening.
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