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Diagnosis and Management of High-Risk Breast Lesions

Parijatham S. Thomas

Atypical hyperplasia (AH) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) are nonmalignant breast lesions that confer a 4- to 10-fold increased risk for breast cancer in women. Often, AH and LCIS are diagnosed through breast biopsy due to a mammographic or palpable finding. Although AH and LCIS are benign breast disease, further management is necessary due to their high-risk nature and premalignant potential. Over the decades, management of AH and LCIS has changed as more is learned about these disease processes. This review explores the studies evaluating the risk for breast cancer in women with AH or LCIS and the clinical management of these lesions, which can include a combination of surgical excision, surveillance, and risk-reduction therapy.