Sleep disruption is prevalent in patients and survivors of breast cancer. Most patients undergoing chemotherapy will experience transient sleep disruption, and nearly 60% will have chronic sleep problems. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Sleep disruption is a consequence of several biological alterations, including circadian disruption and immune and metabolic deregulations. These systems also play significant roles in the control and progression of breast cancer. Sleep disruption is associated with many side effects and psychiatric and medical comorbidities. This article discusses the relationship between stress and posttraumatic stress disorder, depression and fatigue, and how sleep disturbance might be the cause or consequence of these disorders. Current evidence for management of sleep disturbance in breast cancer and high chronic use of hypnotic medication in this population is also discussed. Finally, the differences in management of sleep disturbance during acute cancer care and during the survivorship phase are discussed. More research is needed on accurate and timely assessment of sleep disturbance associated with breast cancer, and additional tailored approaches for the management of sleep problems in breast cancer should be developed.
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Oxana Palesh, Arianna Aldridge-Gerry, Ayhan Ulusakarya, Elisabet Ortiz-Tudela, Lucile Capuron, and Pasquale F. Innominato
Colmar Figueroa-Moseley, Pascal Jean-Pierre, Joseph A. Roscoe, Julie L. Ryan, Sadhna Kohli, Oxana G. Palesh, Elizabeth P. Ryan, Jennifer Carroll, and Gary R. Morrow
Anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV) is associated with a significant reduction in the quality of life for many chemotherapy patients. The use of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists provides some relief for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, but does not seem to control ANV. Nonpharmacologic approaches, which include behavioral interventions, may provide the greatest promise in relieving symptoms. Little evidence supports the use of complementary and alternative methods, such as acupuncture and acupressure, in relieving ANV. Behavioral interventions, especially progressive muscle relaxation training and systematic desensitization, should be considered important methods for preventing and treating ANV.
Ann M. Berger, Kathi Mooney, Amy Alvarez-Perez, William S. Breitbart, Kristen M. Carpenter, David Cella, Charles Cleeland, Efrat Dotan, Mario A. Eisenberger, Carmen P. Escalante, Paul B. Jacobsen, Catherine Jankowski, Thomas LeBlanc, Jennifer A. Ligibel, Elizabeth Trice Loggers, Belinda Mandrell, Barbara A. Murphy, Oxana Palesh, William F. Pirl, Steven C. Plaxe, Michelle B. Riba, Hope S. Rugo, Carolina Salvador, Lynne I. Wagner, Nina D. Wagner-Johnston, Finly J. Zachariah, Mary Anne Bergman, and Courtney Smith
Cancer-related fatigue is defined as a distressing, persistent, subjective sense of physical, emotional, and/or cognitive tiredness or exhaustion related to cancer or cancer treatment that is not proportional to recent activity and interferes with usual functioning. It is one of the most common side effects in patients with cancer. Fatigue has been shown to be a consequence of active treatment, but it may also persist into posttreatment periods. Furthermore, difficulties in end-of-life care can be compounded by fatigue. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Cancer-Related Fatigue provide guidance on screening for fatigue and recommendations for interventions based on the stage of treatment. Interventions may include education and counseling, general strategies for the management of fatigue, and specific nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions. Fatigue is a frequently underreported complication in patients with cancer and, when reported, is responsible for reduced quality of life. Therefore, routine screening to identify fatigue is an important component in improving the quality of life for patients living with cancer.
Jimmie C. Holland, Barbara Andersen, William S. Breitbart, Luke O. Buchmann, Bruce Compas, Teresa L. Deshields, Moreen M. Dudley, Stewart Fleishman, Caryl D. Fulcher, Donna B. Greenberg, Carl B. Greiner, Rev. George F. Handzo, Laura Hoofring, Charles Hoover, Paul B. Jacobsen, Elizabeth Kvale, Michael H. Levy, Matthew J. Loscalzo, Randi McAllister-Black, Karen Y. Mechanic, Oxana Palesh, Janice P. Pazar, Michelle B. Riba, Kristin Roper, Alan D. Valentine, Lynne I. Wagner, Michael A. Zevon, Nicole R. McMillian, and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass
The integration of psychosocial care into the routine care of all patients with cancer is increasingly being recognized as the new standard of care. These NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Distress Management discuss the identification and treatment of psychosocial problems in patients with cancer. They are intended to assist oncology teams identify patients who require referral to psychosocial resources and to give oncology teams guidance on interventions for patients with mild distress to ensure that all patients with distress are recognized and treated.
Michelle B. Riba, Kristine A. Donovan, Barbara Andersen, IIana Braun, William S. Breitbart, Benjamin W. Brewer, Luke O. Buchmann, Matthew M. Clark, Molly Collins, Cheyenne Corbett, Stewart Fleishman, Sofia Garcia, Donna B. Greenberg, Rev. George F. Handzo, Laura Hoofring, Chao-Hui Huang, Robin Lally, Sara Martin, Lisa McGuffey, William Mitchell, Laura J. Morrison, Megan Pailler, Oxana Palesh, Francine Parnes, Janice P. Pazar, Laurel Ralston, Jaroslava Salman, Moreen M. Shannon-Dudley, Alan D. Valentine, Nicole R. McMillian, and Susan D. Darlow
Distress is defined in the NCCN Guidelines for Distress Management as a multifactorial, unpleasant experience of a psychologic (ie, cognitive, behavioral, emotional), social, spiritual, and/or physical nature that may interfere with the ability to cope effectively with cancer, its physical symptoms, and its treatment. Early evaluation and screening for distress leads to early and timely management of psychologic distress, which in turn improves medical management. The panel for the Distress Management Guidelines recently added a new principles section including guidance on implementation of standards of psychosocial care for patients with cancer.