Background: This study was an assessment of the impact of racial background on health behaviors among Canadian adults with a concurrent or past history of a cancer diagnosis. Methods: The Canadian Community Health Survey datasets (2015–2018) were accessed, and adults (age ≥18 years) with cancer were reviewed. Information about the racial background, socioeconomic status, and different health behaviors was reviewed. Multivariable logistic regression analyses for factors associated with different health behaviors were conducted. Results: A total of 20,514 participants with a history of cancer were considered eligible and were included in the analysis. Compared with individuals who self-identified as White, those who self-identified as indigenous were less likely to have received an influenza vaccination in the past year (odds ratio [OR], 1.253; 95% CI, 1.084–1.448), less likely to have drunk alcohol in the past 12 months (OR, 0.641; 95% CI, 0.546–0.752), more likely to be current smokers (OR, 2.245; 95% CI, 1.917–2.630), and more likely to have used recreational drugs in the past 12 years (OR, 1.488; 95% CI, 1.076–2.057). Compared with individuals who self-identified as White, those who self-identified as non-White and nonindigenous were less likely to have received an influenza vaccination in the past year (OR, 1.207; 95% CI, 1.035–1.408), less likely to have drunk alcohol in the past 12 months (OR, 0.557; 95% CI, 0.463–0.671), and less likely to be current smokers (OR, 0.605; 95% CI, 0.476–0.769). Conclusions: Within the Canadian context, there is a considerable variability in the health behaviors of adults with cancer according to their racial background. There is a need to tailor the survivorship care planning of patients with cancer based on socioeconomic context.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the patterns and trends of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer screening within a contemporary cohort of Canadian adults. Methods: Canadian Community Health Survey datasets (2007–2016) were accessed and 3 cohorts were defined: (1) a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening cohort, defined as men and women aged 50 to 74 years with complete information about CRC screening tests and their timing; (2) a breast cancer screening cohort, defined as women aged 40 to 74 years with complete information about mammography and its timing; and (3) a cervical cancer screening cohort, defined as women aged 25 to 69 years with complete information about the Papanicolaou (Pap) test and its timing. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was then performed to evaluate factors associated with not having timely screening tests at the time of survey completion. Results: A total of 99,820 participants were considered eligible for the CRC screening cohort, 59,724 for the breast cancer screening cohort, and 46,767 for the cervical cancer screening cohort. Among eligible participants, 43% did not have timely recommended screening tests for CRC, 35% did not have timely mammography (this number decreased to 26% when limiting the eligible group to ages 50–74 years), and 25% did not have a timely Pap test. Lower income was associated with not having a timely recommended screening tests for all 3 cohorts (odds ratios [95% CI]: 1.86 [1.76–1.97], 1.89 [1.76–2.04], and 1.96 [1.79–2.14], respectively). Likewise, persons self-identifying as a visible minority were less likely to have timely recommended screening tests in all 3 cohorts (odds ratios for White race vs visible minority [95% CI]: 0.87 [0.83–0.92], 0.85 [0.80–0.91], and 0.66 [0.61–0.70], respectively). Conclusions: More than one-third of eligible individuals are missing timely screening tests for CRC. Moreover, at least one-quarter of eligible women are missing their recommended breast and cervical cancer screening tests. More efforts from federal and provincial health authorities are needed to deal with socioeconomic disparities in access to cancer screening.
Omar Abdel-Rahman, Hatim Karachiwala, and Jacob C. Easaw
Background: This study assessed the patterns of opioid use among patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancers who were included in 8 clinical trials and evaluated the impact of opioid use on survival outcomes of included patients. Methods: Deidentified datasets from 8 clinical trials evaluating first-line systemic treatment of advanced gastrointestinal cancers were accessed from the Project Data Sphere platform (ClinicalTrial.gov identifiers: NCT01124786, NCT00844649, NCT00290966, NCT00678535, NCT00699374, NCT00272051, NCT00305188, and NCT00384176). These trials evaluated patients with pancreatic carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and colorectal carcinoma. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate factors predicting the use of opioids. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were used to compare survival outcomes in each disease entity among patients who did or did not receive opioid treatment. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was then used to further assess the impact of opioid use on survival outcomes in each disease entity. Results: A total of 3,441 participants were included in the current analysis. The following factors predicted a higher probability of opioid use within logistic regression analysis: younger age at diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 0.990; 95% CI, 0.984–0.997; P=.004), nonwhite race (OR for white vs nonwhite, 0.749; 95% CI, 0.600–0.933; P=.010), higher ECOG score (OR for 1 vs 0, 1.751; 95% CI, 1.490–2.058; P<.001), and pancreatic primary site (OR for colorectal vs pancreatic, 0.241; 95% CI, 0.198–0.295; P<.001). Use of opioids was consistently associated with worse overall survival (OS) in Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of each disease entity (P=.008 for pancreatic cancer; P<.001 for gastric cancer, HCC, and colorectal cancer). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, opioid use was associated with worse OS among patients with pancreatic cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 1.245; 95% CI, 1.063–1.459; P=.007), gastric cancer (HR, 1.725; 95% CI, 1.403–2.122; P<.001), HCC (HR, 1.841; 95% CI, 1.480–2.290; P<.001), and colorectal cancer (HR, 1.651; 95% CI, 1.380–1.975; P<.001). Conclusions: Study findings suggest that opioid use is consistently associated with worse OS among patients with different gastrointestinal cancers. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms of this observation and its potential implications.