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Impact of Hydroxyurea on Survival and Risk of Thrombosis Among Older Patients With Essential Thrombocythemia

Nikolai A. Podoltsev, Mengxin Zhu, Amer M. Zeidan, Rong Wang, Xiaoyi Wang, Amy J. Davidoff, Scott F. Huntington, Smith Giri, Steven D. Gore, and Xiaomei Ma

ABSTRACT

Background: Current guidelines recommend hydroxyurea (HU) as frontline therapy for patients with high-risk essential thrombocythemia (ET) to prevent thrombosis. However, little is known about the impact of HU on thrombosis or survival among these patients in the real-world setting. Patients and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of older adults (aged ≥66 years) diagnosed with ET from 2007 through 2013 using the linked SEER-Medicare database. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the effect of HU on overall survival, and multivariable competing risk models were used to assess the effect of HU on the occurrence of thrombotic events. Results: Of 1,010 patients, 745 (73.8%) received HU. Treatment with HU was associated with a significantly lower risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43–0.64; P<.01). Every 10% increase in HU proportion of days covered was associated with a 12% decreased risk of death (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86–0.91; P<.01). Compared with nonusers, HU users also had a significantly lower risk of thrombotic events (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41–0.64; P<.01). Conclusions: Although underused in our study population, HU was associated with a reduced incidence of thrombotic events and improved overall survival in older patients with ET.

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Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, Version 2.2017, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Ruben Mesa, Catriona Jamieson, Ravi Bhatia, Michael W. Deininger, Aaron T. Gerds, Ivana Gojo, Jason Gotlib, Krishna Gundabolu, Gabriela Hobbs, Rebecca B. Klisovic, Patricia Kropf, Sanjay R. Mohan, Stephen Oh, Eric Padron, Nikolai Podoltsev, Daniel A. Pollyea, Raajit Rampal, Lindsay A. M. Rein, Bart Scott, David S. Snyder, Brady L. Stein, Srdan Verstovsek, Martha Wadleigh, Eunice S. Wang, Mary Anne Bergman, Kristina M. Gregory, and Hema Sundar

Myelofibrosis (MF), polycythemia vera (PV), and essential thrombocythemia (ET) are a group of heterogeneous disorders of the hematopoietic system collectively known as Philadelphia chromosome–negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The diagnosis and the management of patients with MPNs have evolved since the identification of mutations that activate the JAK pathway (JAK2, CALR, and MPL mutations) and the development of targeted therapies has resulted in significant improvements in disease-related symptoms and quality of life. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for the diagnostic workup of MPN (MF, PV, and ET), risk stratification, treatment, and supportive care strategies for the management of MF.

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Historical Views, Conventional Approaches, and Evolving Management Strategies for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Brady L. Stein, Jason Gotlib, Murat Arcasoy, Marie Huong Nguyen, Neil Shah, Alison Moliterno, Catriona Jamieson, Daniel A. Pollyea, Bart Scott, Martha Wadleigh, Ross Levine, Rami Komrokji, Rebecca Klisovic, Krishna Gundabolu, Patricia Kropf, Meir Wetzler, Stephen T. Oh, Raul Ribeiro, Rita Paschal, Sanjay Mohan, Nikolai Podoltsev, Josef Prchal, Moshe Talpaz, David Snyder, Srdan Verstovsek, and Ruben A. Mesa

The classical Philadelphia chromosome–negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), which include essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis (MF), are in a new era of molecular diagnosis, ushered in by the identification of the JAK2 V617F and cMPL mutations in 2005 and 2006, respectively, and the CALR mutations in 2013. Coupled with increased knowledge of disease pathogenesis and refined diagnostic criteria and prognostic scoring systems, a more nuanced appreciation has emerged of the burden of MPN in the United States, including the prevalence, symptom burden, and impact on quality of life. Biological advances in MPN have translated into the rapid development of novel therapeutics, culminating in the approval of the first treatment for MF, the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. However, certain practical aspects of care, such as those regarding diagnosis, prevention of vascular events, choice of cytoreductive agent, and planning for therapies, present challenges for hematologists/oncologists, and are discussed in this article.

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Systemic Mastocytosis, Version 2.2019, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Jason Gotlib, Aaron T. Gerds, Prithviraj Bose, Mariana C. Castells, Michael W. Deininger, Ivana Gojo, Krishna Gundabolu, Gabriela Hobbs, Catriona Jamieson, Brandon McMahon, Sanjay R. Mohan, Vivian Oehler, Stephen Oh, Eric Padron, Philip Pancari, Nikolaos Papadantonakis, Animesh Pardanani, Nikolai Podoltsev, Raajit Rampal, Erik Ranheim, Lindsay Rein, David S. Snyder, Brady L. Stein, Moshe Talpaz, Swapna Thota, Martha Wadleigh, Katherine Walsh, Mary Anne Bergman, and Hema Sundar

Mastocytosis is a group of heterogeneous disorders resulting from the clonal proliferation of abnormal mast cells and their accumulation in the skin and/or in various extracutaneous organs. Systemic mastocytosis is the most common form of mastocytosis diagnosed in adults, characterized by mast cell infiltration of one or more extracutaneous organs (with or without skin involvement). The identification of KIT D816V mutation and the emergence of novel targeted therapies have significantly improved the diagnosis and treatment of systemic mastocytosis. However, certain aspects of clinical care, particularly the diagnosis, assessment, and management of mediator-related symptoms continue to present challenges. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with systemic mastocytosis.

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Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, Version 3.2022, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Aaron T. Gerds, Jason Gotlib, Haris Ali, Prithviraj Bose, Andrew Dunbar, Amro Elshoury, Tracy I. George, Krishna Gundabolu, Elizabeth Hexner, Gabriela S. Hobbs, Tania Jain, Catriona Jamieson, Paul R. Kaesberg, Andrew T. Kuykendall, Yazan Madanat, Brandon McMahon, Sanjay R. Mohan, Kalyan V. Nadiminti, Stephen Oh, Animesh Pardanani, Nikolai Podoltsev, Lindsay Rein, Rachel Salit, Brady L. Stein, Moshe Talpaz, Pankit Vachhani, Martha Wadleigh, Sarah Wall, Dawn C. Ward, Mary Anne Bergman, and Cindy Hochstetler

The classic Philadelphia chromosome–negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) consist of myelofibrosis, polycythemia vera, and essential thrombocythemia and are a heterogeneous group of clonal blood disorders characterized by an overproduction of blood cells. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for MPN were developed as a result of meetings convened by a multidisciplinary panel with expertise in MPN, with the goal of providing recommendations for the management of MPN in adults. The Guidelines include recommendations for the diagnostic workup, risk stratification, treatment, and supportive care strategies for the management of myelofibrosis, polycythemia vera, and essential thrombocythemia. Assessment of symptoms at baseline and monitoring of symptom status during the course of treatment is recommended for all patients. This article focuses on the recommendations as outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for the diagnosis of MPN and the risk stratification, management, and supportive care relevant to MF.

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NCCN Guidelines Insights: Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, Version 2.2018

Ruben A. Mesa, Catriona Jamieson, Ravi Bhatia, Michael W. Deininger, Christopher D. Fletcher, Aaron T. Gerds, Ivana Gojo, Jason Gotlib, Krishna Gundabolu, Gabriela Hobbs, Brandon McMahon, Sanjay R. Mohan, Stephen Oh, Eric Padron, Nikolaos Papadantonakis, Philip Pancari, Nikolai Podoltsev, Raajit Rampal, Erik Ranheim, Vishnu Reddy, Lindsay A.M. Rein, Bart Scott, David S. Snyder, Brady L. Stein, Moshe Talpaz, Srdan Verstovsek, Martha Wadleigh, Eunice S. Wang, Mary Anne Bergman, Kristina M. Gregory, and Hema Sundar

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of heterogeneous disorders of the hematopoietic system that include myelofibrosis (MF), polycythemia vera (PV), and essential thrombocythemia (ET). PV and ET are characterized by significant thrombohemorrhagic complications and a high risk of transformation to MF and acute myeloid leukemia. The diagnosis and management of PV and ET has evolved since the identification of mutations implicated in their pathogenesis. These NCCN Guideline Insights discuss the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for the risk stratification, treatment, and special considerations for the management of PV and ET.

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Myeloid/Lymphoid Neoplasms with Eosinophilia and TK Fusion Genes, Version 3.2021, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Aaron T. Gerds, Jason Gotlib, Prithviraj Bose, Michael W. Deininger, Andrew Dunbar, Amro Elshoury, Tracy I. George, Ivana Gojo, Krishna Gundabolu, Elizabeth Hexner, Gabriela Hobbs, Tania Jain, Catriona Jamieson, Andrew T. Kuykendall, Brandon McMahon, Sanjay R. Mohan, Vivian Oehler, Stephen Oh, Animesh Pardanani, Nikolai Podoltsev, Erik Ranheim, Lindsay Rein, Rachel Salit, David S. Snyder, Brady L. Stein, Moshe Talpaz, Swapna Thota, Pankit Vachhani, Martha Wadleigh, Katherine Walsh, Dawn C. Ward, Mary Anne Bergman, and Hema Sundar

Eosinophilic disorders and related syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions, characterized by more eosinophils in the peripheral blood, and may involve eosinophil-induced organ damage. In the WHO classification of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, eosinophilic disorders characterized by dysregulated tyrosine kinase (TK) fusion genes are recognized as a new category termed, myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and rearrangement of PDGFRA, PDGFRB or FGFR1 or with PCM1-JAK2. In addition to these aforementioned TK fusion genes, rearrangements involving FLT3 and ABL1 genes have also been described. These new NCCN Guidelines include recommendations for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of any one of the myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia (MLN-Eo) and a TK fusion gene included in the 2017 WHO Classification, as well as MLN-Eo and a FLT3 or ABL1 rearrangement.

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NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Systemic Mastocytosis, Version 3.2024

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Jason Gotlib, Aaron T. Gerds, Peter Abdelmessieh, Haris Ali, Mariana Castells, Andrew Dunbar, Ruth Fein Revell, Tracy I. George, Steven Green, Krishna Gundabolu, Elizabeth Hexner, Tania Jain, Catriona Jamieson, Paul R. Kaesberg, Andrew T. Kuykendall, Yazan Madanat, Naveen Manchanda, Lucia Masarova, Jori May, Brandon McMahon, Sanjay R. Mohan, Kalyan V. Nadiminti, Stephen Oh, Jeanne Palmer, Ami Patel, Anand A. Patel, Nikolai Podoltsev, Lindsay Rein, Rachel Salit, Moshe Talpaz, Martha Wadleigh, Sarah Wall, Mary Anne Bergman, and Cindy Hochstetler

Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of disorders comprising cutaneous mastocytosis, systemic mastocytosis, and mast cell sarcoma. It is associated with a variety of symptoms related to the release of mast cell mediators and mast cell tissue infiltration. Referral to specialized centers with expertise in the management of mastocytosis and multidisciplinary collaboration with subspecialists (eg, allergists for the management of anaphylaxis and drug hypersensitivities, anesthesiologists for invasive procedures or surgery, high-risk obstetrician for pregnancy) is recommended. The NCCN Guidelines for Systemic Mastocytosis provide evidence- and consensus-based recommendations for the diagnosis and comprehensive care of patients with systemic mastocytosis. The multidisciplinary panel of experts convenes at least once a year to review requested changes to the guidelines from both internal and external entities as well as to discuss data on existing and new therapies. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on some of the recent updates to the guidelines.