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  • Author: Neda Hashemi-Sadraei x
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Olumide Gbolahan, Neda Hashemi-Sadraei and Bert O’Neil

Management of advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is challenging and overall survival is poor. Progress in the development of new therapeutic options for metastatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has been slow; hence, to date, there are no approved second-line agents in this setting. Although the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors has significantly improved overall survival in a variety of malignancies, there has not been a clinically important impact in CCA. This report presents a 66-year-old patient with chemotherapy-refractory iCCA who experienced a prolonged response to immunotherapy. Tumor genome profiling revealed a high tumor mutation burden of 17 mutations per megabase in the absence of microsatellite instability. He was started on immunotherapy with nivolumab and has experienced an ongoing response for 16 months without clinical symptoms and only minimal radiologic disease.